You need violence in order to protect nonviolence, Ms. Nauert added. Thats whats very obviously necessary right now. Its full-on war, basically.
Others on the left disagree, saying antifas methods harm the fight against right-wing extremism and have allowed Mr. Trump to argue that the two sides are equivalent. These critics point to the power of peaceful disobedience during the civil rights era, when mass marches and lunch-counter protests in the South slowly eroded the legal enshrinement of discrimination.
Were against violence, just straight up, said Heidi Beirich, director of the Southern Poverty Law Centers Intelligence Project, which tracks hate groups. If you want to protest racists and anti-Semites, it needs to be peacefully and hopefully somewhere away from where those guys are rallying.
Antifa adherents some armed with sticks and masked in bandannas played a visible role in the running street battles in Charlottesville, but it is impossible to know how many people count themselves as members of the movement. Its followers acknowledge it is secretive, without official leaders and organized into autonomous local cells. It is also only one in a constellation of activist movements that have come together in the past several months to the fight the far right.
Driven by a range of political passions including anticapitalism, environmentalism, and gay and indigenous rights the diverse collection of anarchists, communists and socialists has found common cause in opposing right-wing extremists and white supremacists. In the fight against the far right, antifa has allied itself at times with local clergy, members of the Black Lives Matter movement and grass-roots social-justice activists. It has also supported niche groups like Black Bloc fighters, who scrapped with right-wing forces in Berkeley this year, and By Any Means Necessary, a coalition formed more than two decades ago to protest Californias ban on affirmative action for universities.
George Ciccariello-Maher, a professor at Drexel University in Philadelphia who counts himself as both an antifa follower and a scholar of the movement, said it did not have a single origin story. The group has antecedents in Europe, especially Germany and Italy, where its early followers traded shots with Nazis in the 1930s and fought against Benito Mussolinis Blackshirts. Its more recent history has roots in the straight-edge punk rock music scene, the anti-globalization protests of the 1990s and the Occupy Wall Street movement.
The closest thing antifa may have to a guiding principle is that ideologies it identifies as fascistic or based on a belief in genetic inferiority cannot be reasoned with and must be physically resisted. Its adherents express disdain for mainstream liberal politics, seeing it as inadequately muscular, and tend to fight the right though what they call direct actions rather than relying on government authorities.
When you look at this grave and dangerous threat and the violence it has already caused is it more dangerous to do nothing and tolerate it, or should we confront it? Frank Sabat said. Their existence itself is violent and dangerous, so I dont think using force or violence to oppose them is unethical.
Another antifa activist, Asha, 28, from Philadelphia, who also declined to give her full name, said that when people advocate for genocide and white supremacy, that is violence. She added, If we just stand back, we are allowing them to build a movement whose end goal is genocide.
In the days after the violent events in Charlottesville, some antifa members responded with an angry call to arms, saying they could not back down from what they described as the aggressors on the right, even if it meant an escalation into gunfights.
I hope we never get there, said a 29-year-old antifa anarchist from California who goes by the pseudonym Tony Hooligan. But we are willing to get there.
Not all antifa followers are as belligerent, nor are their tactics exclusively violent. When not attending what he called big mobilizations like the one in Charlottesville, Frank Sabat has done ordinary community organizing, advocating prison reform and distributing anarchist literature at punk rock shows. Others say they do the same in antifa strongholds like Philadelphia, the Bay Area of California and the Pacific Northwest.
The Berkeley campus has been a particular hotbed of antifa activity, and university officials have criticized the group. In February, black-clad protesters, some of whom identified themselves as antifa, smashed windows, threw gasoline bombs and broke into a campus building, causing $100,000 in damage.
The very notion of contesting ideas and perspectives with violence is antithetical to everything a university stands for, said Dan Mogulof, a spokesman.
One of antifas chief functions, members said, is to monitor right-wing and white supremacist websites like The Daily Stormer and to expose the extremist groups in dispatches on their own websites like ItsGoingDown.org. According to James Anderson, who helps run ItsGoingDown, interest in the site has spiked since the events in Charlottesville, with more than 4,000 followers added for a total of over 23,000.
But antifa is not some new sexy thing, Mr. Anderson added. He noted that some of those who had scuffled with those on the right at Mr. Trumps inauguration or at more recent events in New Orleans and Portland, Ore., were veterans of actions at the Republican National Convention in Minneapolis in 2008, where hundreds of people were arrested, and at Occupy encampments in cities across the country.
Nonetheless, Mr. Anderson said, the far rights resurgence under Mr. Trump has created a fresh sense of urgency. Suddenly, he said, people are coming into your town with hate. It has to be confronted.
One of the most vivid examples of antifa violence occurred in January at Mr. Trumps inauguration, where a masked member of the movement punched the prominent white supremacist Richard B. Spencer (who was pepper-sprayed by an antifa activist in Charlottesville). That single blow started a national debate over whether it was morally justifiable to punch a Nazi.
Mr. Spencer, an avid opponent of the left, still drew distinctions among factions within the left-wing community.
Its important to differentiate antifa from liberals, he said. I dont think its an overstatement to say that antifa believes in whatever means necessary. They have a sadistic streak.
Other right-wing figures, like Gavin McInnes, the founder of the Proud Boys, a so-called conservative fraternity of Western chauvinists, have said antifa has done itself no favors by assuming that its enemies all share the same views. Mr. McInnes was invited to Charlottesville but declined to go, he said, because of the presence of explicit white supremacists like Mr. Spencer.
In the past, antifa activists have engaged with people who were clearly something less than outright neo-Nazis, raising questions about who, if anyone, deserves to be punched and whether there is such a thing as legitimate political violence.
Like many of their opponents, some antifa members insist that they are merely reacting to pre-existing aggression.
The essence of their message is violence, Jed Holtz, an antifa organizer in New York, said of his right-wing foes. The other side his side is just responding.
But Ms. Nauert said she believed that, now more than ever, physical confrontation would be needed.
In the end, she said, thats what its going to take because Nazis and white supremacists are not around to talk.
- In Flood-Ravaged Houston, Lawmakers Promise Federal Help - The ... - New York Times - September 6th, 2017
- Real-life 'vampire expert' at centre of blood-tasting scandal after student 'cut herself and licked wound' after lecture - Mirror.co.uk - August 22nd, 2017
- Talking Horses: Jimmy Fortune back in the saddle plus a 13-2 nap - The Guardian (blog) - August 17th, 2017
- Review: THE TRIP TO SPAIN, Yet Another Hilarious Culinary Journey from Steve Coogan and Rob Brydon - ScreenAnarchy (blog) - August 10th, 2017
- A Dress Designer Picks Borough Park - New York Times - July 12th, 2017
- Top 10 Upcoming horror Movies Of 2015 - April 26th, 2015
- Horror Movies Of Top Ten || Ever Made In Tamil || Latest Kollywood News - April 23rd, 2015
- Top ten horror movies 2015 - She Devil 2014 - Best Thai horror movies full movie english subtitles - April 6th, 2015
- Top 10 Horror Movies of 2014 - Bloodbath and Beyond - March 31st, 2015
- Top ten horror movies 2015 - The Eyes Diary - Best Thai horror movie full movie english subtitle - March 28th, 2015
- Top 10 Most Scariest Horror Movies Ever Made! - March 28th, 2015
- Best Horror Movies Full I PIN 1988 I Top 10 Horror Movies 1998 - February 3rd, 2015
- 13 SCARIEST Horror Movies Ever Made - January 31st, 2015
- Top Ten horror Movies (Monsters and Creatures) 2014 - January 17th, 2015
- My Top Ten Favorite Horror Movies. - January 9th, 2015
- Top Ten Horror Movies 2014 - November 12th, 2014
- Top 10 horror movies that you must see (VIDEO 2014) - November 12th, 2014
- Horror Movies: Farmhouse 2014 Full Movie - Best Horror Movies 2014 - October 30th, 2014
- 10 Best WORST Horror Movies EVER! - October 30th, 2014
- Top 10 best horror movies of all time with trailers. - October 22nd, 2014
- Top 10 Must See Horror Movies Of 2014 ! - October 9th, 2014
- Best Horror Movies 2014: The Occupants full movie English subtitles - Best Horror Movies - October 9th, 2014
- Scary Movies Full Movies 2014 English -- Best Horror Movie 2014 [Full Movie HD] - July 25th, 2014
- Top Ten Horror Movies Of The 21st Century - July 23rd, 2014
- SCARED 2005 Thai Horror Movies English Subtitle - July 14th, 2014
- Best Horror Movies - The House 2013 Full Movie English subtitlesHD - July 11th, 2014
- Best Horror Movies - Possessed 2009 Full Movie English subtitlesHD - July 11th, 2014
- Horror movies 2014 Rofuto English subtitles Full HD - July 10th, 2014
- Horror movies 2014 Scared English subtitles Full HD - July 9th, 2014
- Watch Top 10 Horror Movies Inspired By True Events - Top Ten Horror Movies - July 6th, 2014
- Top Ten Horror Movies of the 90's - June 10th, 2014
- Top 10 Horror Movies Inspired By True Events - June 7th, 2014
- Horror movies 2014 ghost month English subtitles Full HD - June 1st, 2014
- Top ten horror movies at the moment - April 22nd, 2014
- Top 5 horror Movie Theme Songs - April 19th, 2014
- Top 10 Horror Movie Soundtrack - April 18th, 2014
- Top Ten Monster Movies-TFTW - April 15th, 2014
- My top 25 favourite horror movies of the 21st century in order - April 14th, 2014
- Best 20 Horror Movies Of 2013-2012 (Part-2) (Last Update January 1st,2014) - April 11th, 2014
- My Top 10 Horror Movies from the 1990s 90s - April 3rd, 2014
- My Top 10 Horror Movies from the 1970s (70s) - March 8th, 2014
- Horror Movies Never seen - Top 10 horror movies - February 5th, 2014
- UPDATED TOP 10 - Best Horror Movies (2000-2013) - January 12th, 2014
- Top Ten Horror Slasher Movies - December 31st, 2013
- 31 Days In October Part 25 My Top Ten Horror Movies Part 5/5 FINALLY! - November 27th, 2013
- Top Ten Horror Movies-TFTW - October 30th, 2013
- Top 10 Horror Movies on Netflix - October 30th, 2013
- Top 10 Iconic Horror Movie Moments - September 20th, 2013
- Top 10 Scary Movies Of All Time - September 16th, 2013
- Top 10 Horror Movie Cliches - September 13th, 2013
- My Top 10 Horror Movies from the 1980s 80s - August 15th, 2013
- Malayalam Vlog#11-Top Ten Horror Movies I watched - August 8th, 2013
- Good Movies on Netflix — Horror - July 30th, 2013
- My top 10 horror movies by Stephen King - July 30th, 2013
- The Best Horror/Scary Movies On Netflix - July 29th, 2013
- My top 10 horror films - July 16th, 2013
- The scariest movies of all time - Top 10 horror movies - July 9th, 2013
- Top 6 horror movies to watch on Netflix - June 26th, 2013
- The best horror movies (Top 10) - June 26th, 2013
- Top Ten Upcoming Horror Films of 2013: Trailers & Pics - June 18th, 2013
- Top 10 (places 10-6) Underrated Horror Movies 2000-2010 - June 9th, 2013
- 10. Jacob's Ladder (Scariest Horror Films Top 10) - May 23rd, 2013
- My Top 10 Favorite Horror Movies of All Time - May 16th, 2013
- My top ten horror movies part 2/5 the saga begins - May 6th, 2013
- Top Ten Australian Horror Movies - April 29th, 2013
- Top 100 HoRRoR MoVies - April 24th, 2013
- Top 10 Horror movies of 2010 - April 13th, 2013
- My top ten horror movies part 4/5 Return of the Top Ten! - April 13th, 2013
- Lynda Halligan Hosts Hollywood's Top Ten Scary Movies - April 12th, 2013
- The TOP 10 Scariest Movies of All Time ! [Part2] - April 7th, 2013
- My top ten horror movies part 3/5 Return of the Top Ten! - April 7th, 2013
- My top ten horror movies part 1/5 the saga begins - March 28th, 2013
- Top 5 Horror Films of All Time : Movie Feuds ep45 - March 15th, 2013
- Top 10 Horror Movies of 2011 - March 13th, 2013
- 10 Best horror movies of 2010 - March 13th, 2013
- My Top Ten Worst Horror Movies Of All Time - March 13th, 2013
- top ten horror movies 1 Phantasm - March 12th, 2013
- Top ten horror movies I hate - March 12th, 2013
- top ten horror movies 3 The exorcist III - March 12th, 2013
- top ten horror movies 4 The exorcist - March 12th, 2013
Reviewed and Recommended by Erik Baquero