Christopher Lee | Disney Wiki | FANDOM powered by Wikia

Christopher Lee, CBE, CStJCause of death

Heart failure

Actor, voice actor, singer, author, musician

Christopher Lee has over 200 film credits. He played Dr. Frankenstein’s monster in the 1957 Hammer Horror film The Curse of Frankenstein, and ended up co-starring with Peter Cushing in many other Hammer Horror films to follow. He has portrayed Dracula in several Hammer Horror films, such as Dracula Has Risen From the Grave (1968), and Taste the Blood of Dracula (1970). He also played Kharis the Mummy in the 1959 film The Mummy, as well as Francisco Scaramanga in the 1974 James Bond film The Man With the Golden Gun. He is also known for his role as Dr. Wilbur Wonka in the 2005 family film Charlie and the Chocolate Factory, one of several roles he played for director Tim Burton.

His Disney roles includedDr. Victor Gannon in Return from Witch Mountain, but he is mostly famous for doing the voice for Ansem the Wise in the Kingdom Hearts series. Stock footage of him from one of his Dracula films was utilizedin the 2012 animated feature film Frankenweenie. He also provided the voice of the Jabberwocky in Tim Burton’s Alice in Wonderland.

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This Was The Most Shocking Thing About ‘The Walking Dead …

The Walking Deadis back for its ninth season, and while ratings are way down the show itself is better than it’s been in two and a half seasons.

I say this as one of theThe Walking Dead’sfiercest critics over the years, so if I have such nice things to say you know it must be true.

In any case,spoilers followso read on at your own peril.

Last night’s episode of ‘The Walking Dead’ was surprising in a good way.Credit: AMC

I’ve already written a review of last night’s episode, “The Bridge” so if you want a full recap and some analysis, go read that over here.The TL;DR version: I really liked the episode, though mostly it was about setting the table for events to come. Nothing huge or exciting happened.

Well, that’s not quite true, either. Aaron lost his arm in a freak accident. It was crushed by a log and Enid, a doctor-in-training, was forced to amputate sans medication. Ouch.

But that wasn’t the most shocking thing about last night’s episode ofThe Walking Dead.

No, the most shocking, surprising, incredible and amazing thing about “The Bridge” is the simple fact that there was nothing really stupid about the episode.

I can’t recall the last time an episode ofThe Walking Deaddidn’t include something really stupid. Either some nonsensical dialogue (YOU KNOW WHAT IT IS) or some ridiculous character behavior (even last week’s silly museum scene) or cheesy closeups, bad speeches, terrible gunfights, hideous special effects (that deer, my god) or some other moment of gobsmacking stupidity destined to make eyes roll.

Andrew Lincoln as Rick Grimes, Josh McDermitt as Dr. Eugene PorterCredit: AMC

I literally could go back through the last 35 – 40 reviews of this show and in every single one I’d find a section where I rant about some horrible writing decision or other. Many of my reviews of this show have been incredibly critical for a long, long time and in almost every one I wring my hands and gnash my teeth over the show’s worst habits.

Itwas the lack of this kind of stupidity in Season 3 ofFear The Walking Deadand the first couple episodes of Season 4 that made me start liking that show more. Then, inexplicably,Fearstarted doing the same stupid crap that its parent show always pulls.I will never forgive that show for the stunt with the ethanol truck. It was a whole new level of stupid.

But last night’s episode ofThe Walking Deadhad smart dialogue, including Negan’s very best lines ever. It had interesting conflict, good acting and, amazingly, no bizarre out-of-character decisions and behavior. Daryl is an actual character now, and he has conversations with other characters! Everyone seems real and natural.

That’s pretty shocking, if you ask me. Let’s cross our fingers and hope it keeps moving in the right direction under showrunner, Angela Kang. I’m not ready to say my hopes are high or that I have confidence, but I am pleasantly surprised.

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Netflix & BBC One Board Dracula Series From Sherlock …

BBC One and Netflix have officially commissioned Dracula from the creators of Sherlock as a three-part series.

The 90-minute episodes are written and created by Steven Moffat and Mark Gatiss and produced by Hartswood Films.

Inspired by Bram Stokers classic novel, the three 90-minute episodes will re-introduce the world to Dracula, the vampire who made evil sexy. In Transylvania in 1897, the blood drinking Count is drawing his plans against Victorian London. And be warned: the dead travel fast.

The project has been in the works for some time with the news emerging in June 2017. It will premiere on BBC One in the UK and on Netflix outside of the UK. It was commissioned by Charlotte Moore, Director of BBC Content and Piers Wenger, Controller of BBC Drama. Exec producers are Gatiss, Moffat and Sue Vertue for Hartswood Films, Ben Irving for BBC and will be handled by Larry Tanz for Netflix. BBC Studios Distribution is the global sales firm.

Moffat and Gatiss said,There have always been stories about great evil. Whats special about Dracula, is that Bram Stoker gave evil its own hero.

Wenger said,Steven and Marks ingenious vision for Dracula is as clever as it is chilling. In their talented hands the fans will experience the power of Bram Stokers creation as if completely anew. We are thrilled to be collaborating with them and the brilliant team at Hartswood on yet another iconic British series.

Netflixs Tanz said,We cant wait to bring Steven Moffat and Mark Gatiss brilliant storytelling to our members around the world and we are eager to collaborate on yet another series with the BBC.

Sue Vertue, Executive Producer, Hartswood Films added,We are absolutely thrilled to be back at the BBC, and also delighted that Netflix are coming on board with Dracula. Theres nothing like fresh blood.

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Dracula TV Series Ordered at Netflix From Steven Moffat …

Already home to the ghosts ofHill Houseand the witches ofSabrina, Netflix will soon welcome one very famous vampire.

The streaming service has picked upDracula, a new series based on the classic Bram Stoker tale. In collaboration with BBC One (which will air the series in the U.K.), Netflix has ordered three 90-minute installments, which will be set in 1897 and revolve around the titular bloodsucker from Transylvania who sets his sights on Victorian London.

As previously reported, the project comes from Steven Moffat and Mark Gatiss, who previously teamed to create the Emmy-winningSherlockrevival.

We cant wait to bring Steven Moffat and Mark Gatiss brilliant storytelling to our members around the world, and we are eager to collaborate on yet another series with the BBC, said Larry Tanz, vice president of global television at Netflix.

Added Moffat and Gatiss: There have always been stories about great evil. Whats special aboutDracula is that Bram Stoker gave evil its own hero.

Dracula, of course, has inspired dozens of films and television shows, including NBCs short-lived adaptation in 2013-14, which starred Jonathan Rhys Meyers.

Who do you think should play Dracula this time around? Tell us in the comments!

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The Walking Dead’s Falling Ratings Are About To Get A Whole …

Last week there was good news and bad news when it came to the season 9 premiere of The Walking Dead. The good news was that the premiere was solid, marking what appeared to be a change in the wind for The Walking Dead as a whole under new showrunner Angela Kang.

The bad news was that way, way fewer people had stuck around to watch it after the conclusion of the Negan War in season 8.

The premiere had 6.08 million viewers, down from 7.92 million in the season 8 finale and way down from 11.44 million in the season 8 premiere. Its actually the lowest rated episode of the show since a singular episode in season 2.

But the problem is that things are clearly about to get even worse.

The Walking Deads ratings decline when fans lose interest generally, yes, but we can see clearly from the history of the show that big moments that displease the fanbase also cause almost instant mass exoduses of viewers, and thats almost always tied to the death of a beloved character.

For example:

And now The Walking Dead is about to lose its biggest cast member yet, Rick Grimes. So what happens to that 6 million then? According to these other figures, Id expect about a 20-25% drop in ratings, which could easily take The Walking Dead under 5 million viewers, true season 1 levels, and thats going to happen soon.

Leakers know exactly how and when well see the last of Rick Grimes, and while I wont go into detail, it is coming soon. Its not being saved for the season 9 finale, or even the midseason finale, so we are fast approaching the last we see of him on the show.

Given that this is the biggest (probable) death the show will ever see, the death of its lead, I would expect possibly the largest drop weve ever seen. Granted, some people may have already left early knowing that Rick is going to be gone (AMC has been using this as part of promotion for season 9), but I do think this is going to mark a significant ratings turning point for the show, one that it will probably never bounce back from.

AMC has been constantly brimming with nothing about confidence about the future of The Walking Dead not just as a show, but as a TV universe, planning more spin-offs and movie projects and all sorts of things. But how low do ratings have to get before AMC agrees that its golden goose is now popping out copper eggs instead?

As ever, I do think some of this could have been salvaged if The Walking Dead hadnt killed Carl last season and he was poised to pick up Ricks mantle after hes gone, but even that probably wouldnt be enough to reverse this trend.

I am looking forward to the rest of season 9, because what Ive seen of it has been really good so far, but I do think ratings are going to keep dropping, and flat-out skydive once Rick Grimes is no more.

Follow meon Twitter,FacebookandInstagram.Read my new sci-fi thriller novelHerokiller, available now in print and online. I also wroteThe Earthborn Trilogy.

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Dracula Series from the Sherlock Team to Launch on BBC …

The BBC and Netflix are sinking their fangs into Dracula, a major new series adaptation of the classic vampire tale from the team behind Sherlock.

Variety was the first to reportthat Mark Gatiss and Steven Moffat were working on a new take on the Bram Stoker story last year, and that Sue Vertues Hartswood Films was set to produce. U.K. pubcaster the BBC has now commissioned three 90-minute installments. Netflix will carry the show in most markets outside the U.K.

Dracula marks another collaboration between Moffat and Gatiss after they combined efforts on episodes on Hartswood-produced Sherlock. Set in 1897, the series will revolve around the blood-drinking count from Transylvania who sets his sights on Victorian London.

Moffat and Gatiss said:There have always been stories about great evil. Whats special about Dracula is that Bram Stoker gave evil its own hero. Vertue quipped: Theres nothing like fresh blood.

Charlotte Moore, BBC director of content added:Genius duo Steven Moffat and Mark Gatiss turn their attentions to Dracula for unmissable event television on BBC One.

Related

Moffat executive produced and was showrunner on several seasons of Doctor Who. Actor and screenwriter Gatiss has starred in numerous British series including Sherlock, in which he played Mycroft, Holmes brother. Gatiss has previously talked about his love of classic horror films and the 1958 version of Dracula, starring Christopher Lee and Peter Cushing.

Larry Tanz, VP, content acquisition, Netflix said: We cant wait to bring Steven Moffat and Mark Gatiss brilliant storytelling to our members around the world and we are eager to collaborate on yet another series with the BBC.

Others have attempted to adapt the Gothic horror story for TV. NBCUniversals Carnival, producer of Downton Abbey, made Dracula for NBC in 2013, but it only ran for one season.

It is the latest BBC-Netflix project. BBC chief Tony Hall has talked about the threat posed by the streamers and U.S. tech firms to the pubcaster, but they have teamed for shows including Troy: Fall of a City andDuty/Shame.

Dracula is a co-production of BBC One and Netflix. Gatiss, Moffat, Vertue and the BBCs Ben Irving are exec producers.Tobi de Graaff, director of commissioning and co-production at BBC Studios, brokered the deal with Netflixfor Hartswood Films. Netflix has the premiere rights globally, with the exceptions of the U.K. and China. BBC Studios holds the second window rights.

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The 35 Scariest Movies of All Time | Reader’s Digest

Get Out (2017)

via amazon.com

One of the scariest movies because:It weaves the current tensions in our society with more far-fetched ideas that combine to make the viewer feel like this could actually happen someday.

What the critics say: More than just a standard-issue thriller, this brutal, smart movie is impeccably made, as well as surprising, shocking, and funny, while also offering a compassionate, thoughtful look at race. Jeffery M. Anderson, Common Sense Media

WatchGet Outnow.

via amazon.com

One of the scariest movies because: Aliens have attacked the planet and they destroy anything with sound. This film follows one of the few surviving families, with so many twists, turns, and jump scares, you wont know what hit you.

What the critics say: A Quiet Place lives up to the ambitious challenge that it sets for itself, taking audiences on a compelling and suspenseful journey along the way. Sandy Schaefer, Screen Rant

WatchA Quiet Placenow.

via amazon.com

One of the scariest movies because:Satanism and pregnancy together make for the most disturbing, unraveling two hours of your life.

What the critics say: Rosemarys Baby is high-gloss tosh made high-class horror very expertly by Roman Polanski, making his Hollywood debut and a leap from arthouse darling to hot commercial player. Angie Errigo, Empire. If you prefer your horrors on the page, check out the 20 scariest books ever written.

WatchRosemarys Babynow.

Disclosure: This post is brought to you by Readers Digest editors, who aim to highlight products and services you might find interesting. If you buy them, wemayget a small share of revenuefrom ourpartners,such as Amazon Services LLC Associates Program. We frequently receive products free of charge from manufacturers to test. This does not drive our decision as to whether or not a product is featured or recommended. We welcome your feedback. Have something you think we should know about? Email us at [emailprotected]

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List of best Korean movies

Genre: Action, Drama, Thriller

The Berlin File is a South Korean spy thriller, directed and written bySeung-wan Ryoo, established director in Korean industry, know for many movies, and particularly for Crying Fist and City of Violence, both found on this site. This movie is most successful project of Seung-wan Ryoo so far, and box office record holder for the genre in South Korea.

The plot is quite complex and hard to summarize, but that wouldn’t be international espionage thriller if it would be that simple.

The film is quite long, around two hours, but it balances it’s pace very well. Slow dialogues and scenes that set up mood of seriousness and importance of character actions, followed by hard hitting, high octane stylish action scenes, be it hand to hand, or heavy weaponry. Director himself has stated that he wanted it to resemble popular western spy thriller Borne Identity.

It’s notable that this is another collaboration of director Seung-wan Ryoo and his younger brother Seung-beom Ryu who plays ruthless “problem solver”, hopeful more will follow.

Brilliant cast of some of the best Korean actors, beautiful action scenes, solid cinematography, full of intrigue. A great entry for spy genre.

DVD from Amazon

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Vampire | Vampedia | FANDOM powered by Wikia

A vampire is a being from folklore that subsists by feeding on the life essence (generally in the form of Blood) of the living. In European folklore, vampires were undead beings that often visited loved ones and caused mischief or deaths in the neighborhoods they inhabited when they were alive. They wore shrouds and were often described as bloated and of ruddy or dark countenance, markedly different from today’s gaunt, pale, and an elegant vampire which dates from the early 19th century.

Vampiric entities have been recorded in most cultures; the term vampire, previously an arcane subject, was popularized in the West in the early 19th century, after an influx of vampire superstition into Western Europe from areas where vampire legends were frequent, such as the Balkans and Eastern Europe;[1] local variants were also known by different names, such as shtriga in Albania, vrykolakas in Greece and strigoi in Romania. This increased level of vampire superstition in Europe led to mass hysteria and in some cases resulted in corpses being staked and people being accused of vampirism.

In modern times, the vampire is generally held to be a fictitious entity, although belief in similar vampiric creatures such as the chupacabra still persists in some cultures. Early folk belief in vampires has sometimes been ascribed to the ignorance of the body’s process of decomposition after death and how people in pre-industrial societies tried to rationalize this, creating the figure of the vampire to explain the mysteries of death. Porphyria was also linked with legends of vampirism in 1985 and received much media exposure, but has since been largely discredited.[2]

The charismatic and sophisticated vampire of modern fiction was born in 1819 with the publication of The Vampyre by John Polidori; the story was highly successful and arguably the most influential vampire work of the early 19th century.[3] Bram Stoker’s 1897 novel Dracula is remembered as the quintessential vampire novel and provided the basis for the modern vampire legend. The success of this book spawned a distinctive vampire genre, still popular in the 21st century, with books, films, and television shows. The vampire has since become a dominant figure in the horror genre.

The Oxford English Dictionary dates the first appearance of the English word vampire (as vampyre) in English from 1734, in a travelogue titled Travels of Three English Gentlemen published in The Harleian Miscellany in 1745. Vampires had already been discussed in French[4] and German literature.After Austria gained control of northern Serbia and Oltenia with the Treaty of Passarowitz in 1718, officials noted the local practice of exhuming bodies and “killing vampires.” These reports, prepared between 1725 and 1732, received widespread publicity.[5] The English term was derived (possibly via French vampyre) from the German Vampir, in turn, derived in the early 18th century from the Serbian vampir (Cyrillic: ).

The Serbian form has parallels in virtually all Slavic languages: Bulgarian and Macedonian (vampir), Bosnian: vampir, Croatian vampir, Czech and Slovak upr, Polish wpierz, and (perhaps East Slavic-influenced) upir, Ukrainian (upyr), Russian (upyr), Belarusian (upyr), from Old East Slavic (upir) (many of these languages have also borrowed forms such as “vampir/wampir” subsequently from the West; these are distinct from the original local words for the creature). The exact etymology is unclear.[6] Among the proposed proto-Slavic forms are *pyr and *pir.

Another less widespread theory is that the Slavic languages have borrowed the word from a Turkic term for “witch” (e.g., Tatar ubyr).[7] Czech linguist Vclav Machek proposes Slovak verb “vrepi sa” (stick to, thrust into), or its hypothetical anagram “vperi sa” (in Czech, the archaic verb “vpeit” means “to thrust violently”) as an etymological background, and thus translates “upr” as “someone who thrusts, bites.”[8] An early use of the Old Russian word is in the anti-pagan treatise “Word of Saint Grigoriy” (Russian ), dated variously to the 11th13th centuries, where pagan worship of upyri is reported.

The notion of vampirism has existed for millennia. Cultures such as the Mesopotamians, Hebrews, Ancient Greeks, and Romans had tales of demons and spirits which are considered precursors to modern vampires. Despite the occurrence of vampire-like creatures in these ancient civilizations, the folklore for the entity we know today as the vampire originates almost exclusively from early 18th-century southeastern Europe when verbal traditions of many ethnic groups of the region were recorded and published. In most cases, vampires are revenants of evil beings, suicide victims, or witches, but they can also be created by a malevolent spirit possessing a corpse or by being bitten by a vampire. Belief in such legends became so pervasive that in some areas it caused mass hysteria and even public executions of people believed to be vampires.

It is difficult to make a single, definitive description of the folkloric vampire, though there are several elements common to many European legends. Vampires were usually reported as bloated in appearance, and ruddy, purplish, or dark in color; these characteristics were often attributed to the recent drinking of blood. Blood was often seen seeping from the mouth and nose when one was seen in its shroud or coffin and its left eye was often open.[9] It would be clad in the linen shroud it was buried in, and its teeth, hair, and nails may have grown somewhat, though in general fangs were not a feature.[10] Although vampires were generally described as undead, some folktales spoke of them as living beings.[11]

The causes of vampiric generation were many and varied in original folklore. In Slavic and Chinese traditions, any corpse that was jumped over by an animal, particularly a dog or a cat, was feared to become one of the undead.[12] A body with a wound that had not been treated with boiling water was also at risk. In Russian folklore, vampires were said to have once been witches or people who had rebelled against the Russian Orthodox Church while they were alive.Cultural practices often arose that were intended to prevent a recently deceased loved one from turning into an undead revenant. Burying a corpse upside-down was widespread, as was placing earthly objects, such as scythes or sickles,[13]near the grave to satisfy any demons entering the body or to appease the dead so that it would not wish to arise from its coffin. This method resembles the Ancient Greek practice of placing an obolus in the corpse’s mouth to pay the toll to cross the River Styx in the underworld. It has been argued that instead, the coin was intended to ward off any evil spirits from entering the body, and this may have influenced later vampire folklore. This tradition persisted in modern Greek folklore about the vrykolakas, in which a wax cross and piece of pottery with the inscription “Jesus Christ conquers” were placed on the corpse to prevent the body from becoming a vampire.

Other methods commonly practised in Europe included severing the tendons at the knees or placing poppy seeds, millet, or sand on the ground at the grave site of a presumed vampire; this was intended to keep the vampire occupied all night by counting the fallen grains,[14] indicating an association of vampires with arithmomania. Similar Chinese narratives state that if a vampire-like being came across a sack of rice, it would have to count every grain; this is a theme encountered in myths from the Indian subcontinent, as well as in South American tales of witches and other sorts of evil or mischievous spirits or beings.

In Albanian folklore, the dhampir is the hybrid child of the karkanxholl (a werewolf-like creature with an iron mail shirt) or the lugat (a water-dwelling ghost or monster). The dhampir sprung of a karkanxholl has the unique ability to discern the karkanxholl; from this derives the expression the dhampir knows the lugat. The lugat cannot be seen, he can only be killed by the dhampir, who himself is usually the son of a lugat. In different regions, animals can be revenants as lugats; also, living people during their sleep. Dhampiraj is also an Albanian surname.[15]

Many rituals were used to identify a vampire. One method of finding a vampire’s grave involved leading a virgin boy through a graveyard or church grounds on a virgin stallionthe horse would supposedly balk at the grave in question. Generally, a black horse was required, though in Albania it should be white.[16] Holes appearing in the earth over a grave were taken as a sign of vampirism.[17]

Corpses thought to be vampires were generally described as having a healthier appearance than expected, plump and showing little or no signs of decomposition.[18] In some cases, when suspected graves were opened, villagers even described the corpse as having fresh blood from a victim all over its face.[19] Evidence that a vampire was active in a given locality included the death of cattle, sheep, relatives or neighbors. Folkloric vampires could also make their presence felt by engaging in the minor poltergeist-like activity, such as hurling stones on roofs or moving household objects,[20] and pressing on people in their sleep.[21]

See Category: Slaying

Apotropaicsitems able to ward off revenantsare common in vampire folklore. Garlic is a common example,[22] a branch of wild rose and hawthorn plant are said to harm vampires, and in Europe, sprinkling mustard seeds on the roof of a house were said to keep them away.Other apotropaics include sacred items, for example, a crucifix, rosary, or holy water. Vampires are said to be unable to walk on consecrated ground, such as that of churches or temples, or cross running water.[23]

Although not traditionally regarded as an apotropaic, mirrors have been used to ward off vampires when placed, facing outwards, on a door (in some cultures, vampires do not have a reflection and sometimes do not cast a shadow, perhaps as a manifestation of the vampire’s lack of a soul).This attribute is not universal (the Greek vrykolakas/tympanios was capable of both reflection and shadow), but was used by Bram Stoker in Dracula and has remained popular with subsequent authors and filmmakers.[24]

Some traditions also hold that a vampire cannot enter a house unless invited by the owner; after the first invitation they can come and go as they please. Though folkloric vampires were believed to be more active at night, they were not generally considered vulnerable to sunlight.

Methods of destroying suspected vampires varied, with staking the most commonly cited method, particularly in southern Slavic cultures.[25] Ash was the preferred wood in Russia and the Baltic states, or hawthorn in Serbia, with a record of oak in Silesia.Aspen was also used for stakes, as it was believed that Christ’s cross was made from aspen (aspen branches on the graves of purported vampires were also believed to prevent their risings at night). Potential vampires were most often staked through the heart, though the mouth was targeted in Russia and northern Germany and the stomach in north-eastern Serbia.

Piercing the skin of the chest was a way of “deflating” the bloated vampire. This is similar to the practice of burying sharp objects, such as sickles, with the corpse, so that they may penetrate the skin if the body bloats sufficiently while transforming into a revenant.[26] In one example of the latter, the corpses of five people in a graveyard near the Polish village of Drawsko, dating from the 17th and 18th centuries, were buried with sickles placed around their necks or across their abdomens.

Decapitation was the preferred method in German and western Slavic areas, with the head buried between the feet, behind the buttocks or away from the body.This act was seen as a way of hastening the departure of the soul, which in some cultures, was said to linger in the corpse. The vampire’s head, body, or clothes could also be spiked and pinned to the earth to prevent rising.[27]

Romani people drove steel or iron needles into a corpse’s heart and placed bits of steel in the mouth, over the eyes, ears, and between the fingers at the time of burial. They also placed hawthorn in the corpse’s sock or drove a hawthorn stake through the legs. In a 16th-century burial near Venice, a brick forced into the mouth of a female corpse has been interpreted as a vampire-slaying ritual by the archaeologists who discovered it in 2006.[28] In Bulgaria, over 100 skeletons with metal objects, such as plow bits, embedded in the torso have been discovered.[29]

Further measures included pouring boiling water over the grave or complete incineration of the body. In the Balkans, a vampire could also be killed by being shot or drowned, by repeating the funeral service, by sprinkling holy water on the body, or by exorcism. In Romania, garlic could be placed in the mouth, and as recently as the 19th century, the precaution of shooting a bullet through the coffin was taken. For resistant cases, the body was dismembered and the pieces burned, mixed with water, and administered to family members as a cure. In Saxon regions of Germany, a lemon was placed in the mouth of suspected vampires.[30]

Tales of supernatural beings consuming the blood or flesh of the living have been found in nearly every culture around the world for many centuries.The term vampire did not exist in ancient times. Blood drinking and similar activities were attributed to demons or spirits who would eat flesh and drink blood; even the devil was considered synonymous with the vampire.[31]

Almost every nation has associated blood drinking with some kind of revenant or demon, or in some cases a deity. In India, for example, tales of vetlas, ghoul-like beings that inhabit corpses, have been compiled in the Baitl Pacs; a prominent story in the Kathsaritsgara tells of King Vikramditya and his nightly quests to capture an elusive one.Pica, the returned spirits of evil-doers or those who died insanely, also bear vampiric attributes.[32]

The Persians were one of the first civilisations to have tales of blood-drinking demons: creatures attempting to drink blood from men were depicted on excavated pottery shards.[33] Ancient Babylonia and Assyria had tales of the mythical Lilitu, synonymous with and giving rise to Lilith (Hebrew ) and her daughters the Lilu from Hebrew demonology. Lilitu was considered a demon and was often depicted as subsisting on the blood of babies,[34] and estries, female shape-changing, blood-drinking demons, were said to roam the night among the population, seeking victims. According to Sefer Hasidim, estries were creatures created in the twilight hours before God rested. An injured estrie could be healed by eating bread and salt given her by her attacker.

Greco-Roman mythology described the Empusae, the Lamia, and the striges. Over time the first two terms became general words to describe witches and demons respectively. Empusa was the daughter of the goddess Hecate and was described as a demonic, bronze-footed creature. She feasted on blood by transforming into a young woman and seduced men as they slept before drinking their blood. The Lamia preyed on young children in their beds at night, sucking their blood, as did the gelloudes or Gello. Like the Lamia, the striges feasted on children but also preyed on adults. They were described as having the bodies of crows or birds in general and were later incorporated into Roman mythology as strix, a kind of nocturnal bird that fed on human flesh and blood.

Many myths surrounding vampires originated during the medieval period. The 12th-century English historians and chroniclers Walter Map and William of Newburgh recorded accounts of revenants, though records in English legends of vampiric beings after this date are scant.[35] The Old Norse draugr is another medieval example of an undead creature with similarities to vampires. Vampire-like beings were rarely written about in Jewish literature; the 16th-century rabbi David ben Solomon ibn Abi Zimra (Radbaz) wrote of an uncharitable old woman whose body was unguarded and unburied for three days after she died and rose as a vampiric entity, killing hundreds of people. He linked this event to the lack of a shmirah (guarding) after death as the corpse could be a vessel for evil spirits.

Vampires proper originate in folklore widely reported from Eastern Europe in the late 17th and 18th centuries. These tales formed the basis of the vampire legend that later entered Germany and England, where they were subsequently embellished and popularized. One of the earliest recordings of vampire activity came from the region of Istria in modern Croatia, in 1672.Local reports cited the local vampire Jure Grando of the village Khring near Tinjan as the cause of panic among the villagers. A former peasant, Jure died in 1656. Local villagers claimed he returned from the dead and began drinking blood from the people and sexually harassing his widow. The village leader ordered a stake to be driven through his heart, but when the method failed to kill him, he was subsequently beheaded with better results.

During the 18th century, there was a frenzy of vampire sightings in Eastern Europe, with frequent stakings and grave diggings to identify and kill the potential revenants. Even government officials engaged in the hunting and staking of vampires. Despite being called the Age of Enlightenment, during which most folkloric legends were quelled, the belief in vampires increased dramatically, resulting in a mass hysteria throughout most of Europe. The panic began with an outbreak of alleged vampire attacks in East Prussia in 1721 and in the Habsburg Monarchy from 1725 to 1734, which spread to other localities. Two famous vampire cases, the first to be officially recorded, involved the corpses of Petar Blagojevich and Milo ear from Serbia. Blagojevich was reported to have died at the age of 62 but allegedly returned after his death asking his son for food. When the son refused, he was found dead the following day. Blagojevich supposedly returned and attacked some neighbors who died from loss of blood.[36]

In the second case, Milo, an ex-soldier turned farmer who allegedly was attacked by a vampire years before, died while haying. After his death, people began to die in the surrounding area and it was widely believed that Milo had returned to prey on the neighbors. Another famous Serbian legend involving vampires concentrates around a certain Sava Savanovi living in a watermill and killing and drinking blood from millers. The character was later used in a story written by Serbian writer Milovan Glii and in the Yugoslav 1973 horror film Leptirica inspired by the story.

The two incidents were well-documented. Government officials examined the bodies, wrote case reports, and published books throughout Europe.[37] The hysteria commonly referred to as the “18th-Century Vampire Controversy,” raged for a generation. The problem was exacerbated by rural epidemics of so-claimed vampire attacks, undoubtedly caused by the higher amount of superstition that was present in village communities, with locals digging up bodies and in some cases, staking them.

In 1597, King James wrote a dissertation on witchcraft titled Daemonologie in which he wrote the belief that demons could possess both the living and the dead. Within his classification of demons, he explained the concept through the notion that incubi and succubae could possess the corpse of the deceased and walk the earth. As a devil borrows a dead body, it would seem so visibly and naturally to any man who converses with them and that any substance within the body would remain intolerably cold to others which they abuse.

In 1645 the Greek librarian of the Vatican, Leo Allatius, produced the first methodological description of the Balkan beliefs in vampires (Greek: vrykolakas) in his work De Graecorum hodie quorundam opinationibus (“On certain modern opinions among the Greeks”).[38]

From 1679, Philippe Rohr devotes an essay to the dead who chew their shrouds in their graves, a subject resumed by Otto in 1732, and then by Michael Ranft in 1734. The subject was based on the observation that when digging up graves, it was discovered that some corpses had at some point either devoured the interior fabric of their coffin or their own limbs. Ranft described in his treatise of a tradition in some parts of Germany, that to prevent the dead from masticating they placed a mound of dirt under their chin in the coffin, placed a piece of money and a stone in the mouth, or tied a handkerchief tightly around the throat.In 1732 an anonymous writer writing as “the doctor Weimar” discusses the non-putrefaction of these creatures, from a theological point of view. In 1733, Johann Christoph Harenberg wrote a general treatise on vampirism and the Marquis d’Argens cites local cases. Theologians and clergymen also address the topic.

Some theological disputes arose. The non-decay of vampires’ bodies could recall the incorruption of the bodies of the saints of the Catholic Church. A paragraph on vampires was included in the second edition (1749) of De servorum Dei beatificatione et sanctorum canonizatione, On the beatification of the servants of God and on the canonization of the blessed, written by Prospero Lambertini (Pope Benedict XIV).In his opinion, while the incorruption of the bodies of saints was the effect of a divine intervention, all the phenomena attributed to vampires were purely natural or the fruit of “imagination, terror, and fear.” In other words, vampires did not exist.

Dom Augustine Calmet, a French theologian, and scholar published a comprehensive treatise in 1751 titled Treatise on the Apparitions of Spirits and on Vampires or Revenants which investigated the existence of vampires, demons, and spectres. Calmet conducted extensive research and amassed judicial reports of vampiric incidents and extensively researched theological and mythological accounts as well, using the scientific method in his analysis to come up with methods for determining the validity for cases of this nature. As he stated in his treatise:

They see, it is said, men who have been dead for several months, come back to earth, talk, walk, infest villages, ill use both men and beasts, suck the blood of their near relations, make them ill, and finally cause their death; so that people can only save themselves from their dangerous visits and their hauntings by exhuming them, impaling them, cutting off their heads, tearing out the heart, or burning them. These revenants are called by the name of oupires or vampires, that is to say, leeches; and such particulars are related to them, so singular, so detailed, and invested with such probable circumstances and such judicial information, that one can hardly refuse to credit the belief which is held in those countries, that these revenants come out of their tombs and produce those effects which are proclaimed of them.

Calmet had numerous readers, including both a critical Voltaire and numerous supportive demonologists who interpreted the treatise as claiming that vampires existed. In the Philosophical Dictionary, Voltaire wrote:

These vampires were corpses, who went out of their graves at night to suck the blood of the living, either at their throats or stomachs, after which they returned to their cemeteries. The persons so sucked waned, grew pale, and fell into consumption; while the sucking corpses grew fat, got rosy, and enjoyed an excellent appetite. It was in Poland, Hungary, Silesia, Moravia, Austria, and Lorraine, that the dead made this good cheer.

The controversy in Austria only ceased when Empress Maria Theresa of Austria sent her personal physician, Gerard van Swieten, to investigate the claims of vampiric entities. He concluded that vampires did not exist and the Empress passed laws prohibiting the opening of graves and desecration of bodies, sounding the end of the vampire epidemics. Other European countries followed suit. Despite this condemnation, the vampire lived on in artistic works and in local superstition.[39]

Beings having many of the attributes of European vampires appear in the folklore of Africa, Asia, North and South America, and India. Classified as vampires, all share the thirst for blood.

Various regions of Africa have folktales featuring beings with vampiric abilities: in West Africa, the Ashanti people tell of the iron-toothed and tree-dwelling asanbosam,[40] and the Ewe people of the adze, which can take the form of a firefly and hunts children.[41] The eastern Cape region has the impundulu, which can take the form of a large taloned bird and can summon thunder and lightning, and the Betsileo people of Madagascar tell of the ramanga, an outlaw or living vampire who drinks the blood and eats the nail clippings of nobles.[42]

The Loogaroo is an example of how a vampire belief can result from a combination of beliefs, here a mixture of French and African Vodu or voodoo. The term Loogaroo possibly comes from the French loup-garou (meaning “werewolf”) and is common in the culture of Mauritius. The stories of the Loogaroo are widespread through the Caribbean Islands and Louisiana in the United States.[43] Similar female monsters are the Soucouyant of Trinidad, and the Tunda and Patasola of Colombian folklore, while the Mapuche of southern Chile has the bloodsucking snake known as the Peuchen.Aloe vera hung backward behind or near a door was thought to ward off vampiric beings in South American superstition.Aztec mythology described tales of the Cihuateteo, skeletal-faced spirits of those who died in childbirth who stole children and entered into sexual liaisons with the living, driving them mad.

During the late 18th and 19th centuries, the belief in vampires was widespread in parts of New England, particularly in Rhode Island and eastern Connecticut. There are many documented cases of families disinterring loved ones and removing their hearts in the belief that the deceased was a vampire who was responsible for sickness and death in the family, although the term “vampire” was never used to describe the dead. The deadly disease tuberculosis, or “consumption” as it was known at the time, was believed to be caused by nightly visitations on the part of a dead family member who had died of consumption themselves. The most famous, and most recently recorded, case of suspected vampirism is that of nineteen-year-old Mercy Brown, who died in Exeter, Rhode Island in 1892. Her father, assisted by the family physician, removed her from her tomb two months after her death, cut out her heart and burned it to ashes.

Vampires have appeared in Japanese cinema since the late 1950s; the folklore behind it is western in origin.[44] The Nukekubi is a being whose head and neck detach from its body to fly about seeking human prey at night.Legends of female vampire-like beings who can detach parts of their upper body also occur in the Philippines, Malaysia, and Indonesia. There are two main vampire-like creatures in the Philippines: the Tagalog Mandurugo (“blood-sucker”) and the Visayan Manananggal (“self-segmenter”). The mandurugo is a variety of the aswang that takes the form of an attractive girl by the day and develops wings and a long, hollow, thread-like tongue by night. The tongue is used to suck up blood from a sleeping victim. The manananggal is described as being an older, beautiful woman capable of severing its upper torso in order to fly into the night with huge bat-like wings and prey on unsuspecting, sleeping pregnant women in their homes. They use an elongated proboscis-like tongue to suck fetuses from these pregnant women. They also prefer to eat entrails (specifically the heart and the liver) and the phlegm of sick people.

The Malaysian Penanggalan is a woman who obtained her beauty through the active use of black magic or other unnatural means and is most commonly described in local folklore to be dark or demonic in nature. She is able to detach her fanged head which flies around in the night looking for blood, typically from pregnant women.[45] Malaysians hung jeruju (thistles) around the doors and windows of houses, hoping the Penanggalan would not enter for fear of catching its intestines on the thorns.[46] The Leyak is a similar being from Balinese folklore of Indonesia. A Kuntilanak or Matianak in Indonesia,[47] or Pontianak or Langsuir in Malaysia,[48] is a woman who died during childbirth and became undead, seeking revenge and terrorizing villages. She appeared as an attractive woman with long black hair that covered a hole in the back of her neck, with which she sucked the blood of children. Filling the hole with her hair would drive her off. Corpses had their mouths filled with glass beads, eggs under each armpit, and needles in their palms to prevent them from becoming langsuir. This description would also fit the Sundel Bolongs.[49]

Jiangshi, sometimes called “Chinese vampires” by Westerners, are reanimated corpses that hop around, killing living creatures to absorb life essence (q) from their victims. They are said to be created when a person’s soul ( p) fails to leave the deceased’s body. Jiang shi are usually represented as mindless creatures with no independent thought. This monster has greenish-white furry skin, perhaps derived from fungus or mold growing on corpses.Jiangshi legends have inspired a genre of jiangshi films and literature in Hong Kong and East Asia. Films like Encounters of the Spooky Kind and Mr. Vampire were released during the jiangshi cinematic boom of the 1980s and 1990s.

In modern fiction, the vampire tends to be depicted as a suave, charismatic villain. Despite the general disbelief in vampiric entities, occasional sightings of vampires are reported. Vampire hunting societies still exist, but they are largely formed for social reasons. Allegations of vampire attacks swept through Malawi during late 2002 and early 2003, with mobs stoning one person to death and attacking at least four others, including Governor Eric Chiwaya, based on the belief that the government was colluding with vampires.

In early 1970 local press spread rumors that a vampire haunted Highgate Cemetery in London. Amateur vampire hunters flocked in large numbers to the cemetery. Several books have been written about the case, notably by Sean Manchester, a local man who was among the first to suggest the existence of the “Highgate Vampire” and who later claimed to have exorcised and destroyed a whole nest of vampires in the area.In January 2005, rumors circulated that an attacker had bitten a number of people in Birmingham, England, fuelling concerns about a vampire roaming the streets. Local police stated that no such crime had been reported and that the case appears to be an urban legend.

In 2006, a physics professor at the University of Central Florida wrote a paper arguing that it is mathematically impossible for vampires to exist, based on geometric progression. According to the paper, if the first vampire had appeared on 1 January 1600, and it fed once a month (which is less often than what is depicted in films and folklore), and every victim turned into a vampire, then within two and a half years the entire human population of the time would have become vampires.[50]

In one of the more notable cases of vampiric entities in the modern age, the chupacabra (“goat-sucker”) of Puerto Rico and Mexico is said to be a creature that feeds upon the flesh or drinks the blood of domesticated animals, leading some to consider it a kind of vampire. The “chupacabra hysteria” was frequently associated with deep economic and political crises, particularly during the mid-1990s.

In Europe, where much of the vampire folklore originates, the vampire is usually considered a fictitious being; many communities may have embraced the revenant for economic purposes. In some cases, especially in small localities, vampire superstition is still rampant and sightings or claims of vampire attacks occur frequently. In Romania during February 2004, several relatives of Toma Petre feared that he had become a vampire. They dug up his corpse, tore out his heart, burned it, and mixed the ashes with water in order to drink it.

Vampirism and the vampire lifestyle also represent a relevant part of modern day’s occultist movements.The mythos of the vampire, his magickal qualities, allure, and predatory archetype express a strong symbolism that can be used in ritual, energy work, and magick, and can even be adopted as a spiritual system.[51] The vampire has been part of the occult society in Europe for centuries and has spread into the American sub-culture as well for more than a decade, being strongly influenced by and mixed with the neo gothic aesthetics.

“Coven” has been used as a collective noun for vampires, possibly based on the Wiccan usage. An alternative collective noun is a “house” of vampires.

Commentators have offered many theories for the origins of vampire beliefs, trying to explain the superstition and sometimes mass hysteria caused by vampires. Everything ranging from premature burial to the early ignorance of the body’s decomposition cycle after death has been cited as the cause for the belief in vampires.

Paul Barber in his book Vampires, Burial and Death has described that belief in vampires resulted from people of pre-industrial societies attempting to explain the natural, but to them inexplicable, the process of death and decomposition.

People sometimes suspected vampirism when a cadaver did not look as they thought a normal corpse should when disinterred. Rates of decomposition vary depending on temperature and soil composition, and many of the signs are little known. This has led vampire hunters to mistakenly conclude that a dead body had not decomposed at all or, ironically, to interpret signs of decomposition as signs of continued life.

Corpses swell as gases from decomposition accumulate in the torso and the increased pressure forces blood to ooze from the nose and mouth. This causes the body to look “plump,” “well-fed,” and “ruddy”changes that are all the more striking if the person was pale or thin in life. In the Arnold Paole case, an old woman’s exhumed corpse was judged by her neighbors to look more plump and healthy than she had ever looked in life. The exuding blood gave the impression that the corpse had recently been engaging in vampiric activity.

Darkening of the skin is also caused by decomposition.[52] The staking of a swollen, decomposing body could cause the body to bleed and force the accumulated gases to escape the body. This could produce a groan-like sound when the gases moved past the vocal cords, or a sound reminiscent of flatulence when they passed through the anus. The official reporting on the Petar Blagojevich case speaks of “other wild signs which I pass by out of high respect.”[53]

After death, the skin and gums lose fluids and contract, exposing the roots of the hair, nails, and teeth, even teeth that were concealed in the jaw. This can produce the illusion that the hair, nails, and teeth have grown. At a certain stage, the nails fall off and the skin peels away, as reported in the Blagojevich casethe dermis and nail beds emerging underneath were interpreted as “new skin” and “new nails.”

It has also been hypothesized that vampire legends were influenced by individuals being buried alive because of shortcomings in the medical knowledge of the time. In some cases in which people reported sounds emanating from a specific coffin, it was later dug up and fingernail marks were discovered on the inside from the victim trying to escape. In other cases, the person would hit their heads, noses or faces and it would appear that they had been “feeding.”[54] A problem with this theory is the question of how people presumably buried alive managed to stay alive for any extended period without food, water or fresh air. An alternate explanation for noise is the bubbling of escaping gases from natural decomposition of bodies.[55] Another likely cause of disordered tombs is grave robbery.[56]

Folkloric vampirism has been associated with clusters of deaths from unidentifiable or mysterious illnesses, usually within the same family or the same small community. The epidemic allusion is obvious in the classical cases of Petar Blagojevich and Arnold Paole, and even more so in the case of Mercy Brown and in the vampire beliefs of New England generally, where a specific disease, tuberculosis, was associated with outbreaks of vampirism. As with the pneumonic form of bubonic plague, it was associated with the breakdown of lung tissue which would cause blood to appear at the lips.[57]

In 1985 biochemist David Dolphin proposed a link between the rare blood disorder porphyria and vampire folklore. Noting that the condition is treated by intravenous haem, he suggested that the consumption of large amounts of blood may result in harm being transported somehow across the stomach wall and into the bloodstream. Thus vampires were merely sufferers of porphyria seeking to replace haem and alleviate their symptoms.[58]

The theory has been rebuffed medically as suggestions that porphyria sufferers crave the haem in human blood, or that the consumption of blood might ease the symptoms of porphyria, are based on a misunderstanding of the disease. Furthermore, Dolphin was noted to have confused fictional (bloodsucking) vampires with those of folklore, many of whom were not noted to drink blood.[59] Similarly, a parallel is made between sensitivity to sunlight by sufferers, yet this was associated with fictional and not folkloric vampires. In any case, Dolphin did not go on to publish his work more widely

Rabies has been linked with vampire folklore. Dr. Juan Gmez-Alonso, a neurologist at Xeral Hospital in Vigo, Spain, examined this possibility in a report in Neurology. The susceptibility to garlic and light could be due to hypersensitivity, which is a symptom of rabies. The disease can also affect portions of the brain that could lead to disturbance of normal sleep patterns (thus becoming nocturnal) and hypersexuality. Legend once said a man was not rabid if he could look at his own reflection (an allusion to the legend that vampires have no reflection). Wolves and bats, which are often associated with vampires, can be carriers of rabies. The disease can also lead to a drive to bite others and to a bloody frothing at the mouth.

In his 1931 treatise On the Nightmare, Welsh psychoanalyst Ernest Jones asserted that vampires are symbolic of several unconscious drives and defense mechanisms. Emotions such as love, guilt, and hate fuel the idea of the return of the dead to the grave. Desiring a reunion with loved ones, mourners may project the idea that the recently dead must in return yearn the same. From this arises the belief that folkloric vampires and revenants visit relatives, particularly their spouses, first.[60]

In cases where there was unconscious guilt associated with the relationship, the wish for reunion may be subverted by anxiety. This may lead to repression, which Sigmund Freud had linked with the development of morbid dread. Jones surmised, in this case, the original wish of a (sexual) reunion may be drastically changed: desire is replaced by fear; love is replaced by sadism, and the object or loved one is replaced by an unknown entity. The sexual aspect may or may not be present.[61] Some modern critics have proposed a simpler theory: People identify with immortal vampires because, by so doing, they overcome, or at least temporarily escape from, their fear of dying.[62]

The innate sexuality of bloodsucking can be seen in its intrinsic connection with cannibalism and folkloric one with incubus-like behavior. Many legends report various beings draining other fluids from victims, an unconscious association with semen being obvious. Finally, Jones notes that when more normal aspects of sexuality are repressed, regressed forms may be expressed, in particular, sadism; he felt that oral sadism is integral in vampiric behavior.[63]

The reinvention of the vampire myth in the modern era is not without political overtones.The aristocratic Count Dracula, alone in his castle apart from a few demented retainers, appearing only at night to feed on his peasantry, is symbolic of the parasitic ancien regime. In his entry for “Vampires” in the Dictionnaire philosophique (1764), Voltaire notices how the mid-18th century coincided with the decline of the folkloric belief in the existence of vampires but that now “there were stock-jobbers, brokers, and men of business, who sucked the blood of the people in broad daylight; but they were not dead, though corrupted. These true suckers lived not in cemeteries, but in very agreeable palaces.”[64]

Marx defined capital as “dead labor which, vampire-like, lives only by sucking living labor, and lives the more, the more labor it sucks.”[65] Werner Herzog, in his Nosferatu the Vampyre, gives this political interpretation an extra ironic twist when protagonist Jonathon Harker, a middle-class solicitor, becomes the next vampire; in this way, the capitalist bourgeois becomes the next parasitic class.

A number of murderers have performed seemingly vampiric rituals upon their victims. Serial killers Peter Krten and Richard Trenton Chase were both called “vampires” in the tabloids after they were discovered drinking the blood of the people they murdered. Similarly, in 1932, an unsolved murder case in Stockholm, Sweden was nicknamed the “Vampire murder,” because of the circumstances of the victim’s death. The late-16th-century Hungarian countess and mass murderer Elizabeth Bthory became particularly infamous in later centuries’ works, which depicted her bathing in her victims’ blood in order to retain beauty or youth.[66]

Vampire lifestyle is a term for a contemporary subculture of people, largely within the Goth subculture, who consume the blood of others as a pastime; drawing from the rich recent history of popular culture related to cult symbolism, horror films, the fiction of Anne Rice, and the styles of Victorian England.[67] Active vampirism within the vampire subculture includes both blood-related vampirism, commonly referred to as sanguine vampirism, and psychic vampirism, or supposed feeding from pranic energy.

Although many cultures have stories about them, vampire bats have only recently become an integral part of the traditional vampire lore. Vampire bats were integrated into vampire folklore after they were discovered on the South American mainland in the 16th century.[68] There are no vampire bats in Europe, but bats and owls have long been associated with the supernatural and omens, mainly because of their nocturnal habits,

The three species of vampire bats are all endemic to Latin America, and there is no evidence to suggest that they had any Old World relatives within human memory. It is therefore impossible that the folkloric vampire represents a distorted presentation or memory of the vampire bat. The bats were named after the folkloric vampire rather than vice versa; the Oxford English Dictionary records their folkloric use in English from 1734 and the zoological not until 1774. The vampire bat’s bite is usually not harmful to a person, but the bat has been known to actively feed on humans and large prey such as cattle and often leaves the trademark, two-prong bite mark on its victim’s skin.

The literary Dracula transforms into a bat several times in the novel, and vampire bats themselves are mentioned twice in it. The 1927 stage production of Dracula followed the novel in having Dracula turn into a bat, as did the film, where Bla Lugosi would transform into a bat.The bat transformation scene was used again by Lon Chaney Jr. in 1943’s Son of Dracula.[69]

Over time, some attributes now regarded as integral became incorporated into the vampire’s profile: fangs and vulnerability to sunlight appeared over the course of the 19th century, with Varney the Vampire and Count Dracula both bearing protruding teeth,[71] and Murnau’s Nosferatu (1922) fearing daylight.[72] The cloak appeared in stage productions of the 1920s, with a high collar introduced by playwright Hamilton Deane to help Dracula ‘vanish’ on stage.[73] Lord Ruthven and Varney were able to be healed by moonlight, although no account of this is known in traditional folklore.[74] Implied though not often explicitly documented in folklore, immortality is one attribute which features heavily in vampire film and literature. Much is made of the price of eternal life, namely the incessant need for blood of former equals.[75]

“Carmilla” by D. H. Friston, 1872

The vampire or revenant first appeared in poems such as The Vampire (1748) by Heinrich August Ossenfelder, Lenore (1773) by Gottfried August Brger, Die Braut von Corinth (The Bride of Corinth ) (1797) by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Robert Southey’s Thalaba the Destroyer (1801), John Stagg’s “The Vampyre” (1810), Percy Bysshe Shelley’s “The Spectral Horseman” (1810) (“Nor a yelling vampire reeking with gore”) and “Ballad” in St. Irvyne (1811) about a reanimated corpse, Sister Rosa, Samuel Taylor Coleridge’s unfinished Christabel and Lord Byron’s The Giaour.[76]

Byron was also credited with the first prose fiction piece concerned with vampires: The Vampyre (1819). This was in reality authored by Byron’s personal physician, John Polidori, who adapted an enigmatic fragmentary tale of his illustrious patient, “Fragment of a Novel” (1819), also known as “The Burial: A Fragment.”[77] Byron’s own dominating personality, mediated by his lover Lady Caroline Lamb in her unflattering roman-a-clef Glenarvon (a Gothic fantasia based on Byron’s wild life), was used as a model for Polidori’s undead protagonist Lord Ruthven. The Vampyre was highly successful and the most influential vampire work of the early 19th century.[78]

Varney the Vampire was a landmark popular mid-Victorian era gothic horror story by James Malcolm Rymer and Thomas Peckett Prest, which first appeared from 1845 to 1847 in a series of pamphlets generally referred to as penny dreadfuls because of their inexpensive price and typically gruesome contents. The story was published in book form in 1847 and runs to 868 double-columned pages. It has a distinctly suspenseful style, using vivid imagery to describe the horrifying exploits of Varney. Another important addition to the genre was Sheridan Le Fanu’s lesbian vampire story Carmilla (1871). Like Varney before her, the vampire Carmilla is portrayed in a somewhat sympathetic light as the compulsion of her condition is highlighted.[79]

No effort to depict vampires in popular fiction was as influential or as definitive as Bram Stoker’s Dracula (1897).[80] Its portrayal of vampirism as a disease of contagious demonic possession, with its undertones of sex, blood, and death, struck a chord in Victorian Europe where tuberculosis and syphilis were common. The vampiric traits described in Stoker’s work merged with and dominated folkloric tradition, eventually evolving into the modern fictional vampire.

Drawing on past works such as The Vampyre and “Carmilla,” Stoker began to research his new book in the late 19th century, reading works such as The Land Beyond the Forest (1888) by Emily Gerard and other books about Transylvania and vampires. In London, a colleague mentioned to him the story of Vlad epe, the “real-life Dracula,” and Stoker immediately incorporated this story into his book. The first chapter of the book was omitted when it was published in 1897, but it was released in 1914 as Dracula’s Guest.[81]

The latter part of the 20th century saw the rise of multi-volume vampire epics. The first of these was Gothic romance writer Marilyn Ross’s Barnabas Collins series (196671), loosely based on the contemporary American TV series Dark Shadows. It also set the trend for seeing vampires as poetic tragic heroes rather than as the more traditional embodiment of evil. This formula was followed in novelist Anne Rice’s highly popular and influential Vampire Chronicles (19762003).[82]

The 21st century brought more examples of vampire fiction, such as J.R. Ward’s Black Dagger Brotherhood series, and other highly popular vampire books which appeal to teenagers and young adults. Such vampiric paranormal romance novels and allied vampiric chick-lit and vampiric occult detective stories are a remarkably popular and ever-expanding contemporary publishing phenomenon.[83] L.A. Banks’ The Vampire Huntress Legend Series, Laurell K. Hamilton’s erotic Anita Blake: Vampire Hunter series and Kim Harrison’s The Hollows series portray the vampire in a variety of new perspectives, some of them unrelated to the original legends. Vampires in the Twilight series (20052008) by Stephenie Meyer ignore the effects of garlic and crosses and are not harmed by sunlight, although it does reveal their supernatural status. Richelle Mead further deviates from traditional vampires in her Vampire Academy series (2007present), basing the novels on Romanian lore with two races of vampires, one good, and one evil, as well as half-vampires.

Considered one of the preeminent figures of the classic horror film, the vampire has proven to be a rich subject for the film and gaming industries. Dracula is a major character in more films than any other but Sherlock Holmes and many early films were either based on the novel Dracula or closely derived from it. These included the 1922 German silent film Nosferatu, directed by F. W. Murnau and featuring the first film portrayal of Draculaalthough names and characters were intended to mimic Dracula’s, Murnau could not obtain permission to do so from Stoker’s widow and had to alter many aspects of the film. Universal’s Dracula (1931), starring Bla Lugosi as the Count, was the first talking film to portray Dracula. The decade saw several more vampire films, most notably Dracula’s Daughter in 1936.[84]

The legend of the vampire continued through the film industry when Dracula was reincarnated in the pertinent Hammer Horror series of films, starring Christopher Lee as the Count. The successful 1958 Dracula starring Lee was followed by seven sequels. Lee returned as Dracula in all but two of these and became well known in the role.[85] By the 1970s, vampires in films had diversified with works such as Count Yorga, Vampire (1970), an African Count in 1972’s Blacula, the BBC’s Count Dracula featuring French actor Louis Jourdan as Dracula and Frank Finlay as Abraham Van Helsing, and a Nosferatu-like vampire in 1979’s Salem’s Lot, and a remake of Nosferatu itself, titled Nosferatu the Vampyre with Klaus Kinski the same year. Several films featured the characterization of a female, often lesbian, vampire such as Hammer Horror’s The Vampire Lovers (1970), based on Carmilla, though the plotlines still revolved around a central evil vampire character.

The Gothic soap opera Dark Shadows, on American television from 1966 to 1971 and produced by Dan Curtis, featured the vampire character Barnabas Collins, portrayed by Canadian actor Jonathan Frid, which proved partly responsible for making the series one of the most popular of its type, amassing a total of 1,225 episodes in its nearly five-year run. The pilot for the later Dan Curtis 1972 television series Kolchak: The Night Stalker revolved around reporter Carl Kolchak hunting a vampire on the Las Vegas Strip. Later films showed more diversity in the plotline, with some focusing on the vampire-hunter, such as Blade in the Marvel Comics’ Blade films and the film Buffy the Vampire Slayer.Buffy, released in 1992, foreshadowed a vampiric presence on television, with adaptation to a long-running hit series of the same name and its spin-off Angel. Still, others showed the vampire as protagonists, such as 1983’s The Hunger, 1994’s Interview with the Vampire and its indirect sequel of sorts Queen of the Damned, and the 2007 series Moonlight. The 1992 film Bram Stoker’s Dracula became the then-highest-grossing vampire film ever.[86]

This increase of interest in vampiric plotlines led to the vampire being depicted in films such as Underworld and Van Helsing, and the Russian Night Watch and a TV miniseries remake of Salem’s Lot, both from 2004. The series Blood Ties premiered on Lifetime Television in 2007, featuring a character portrayed as Henry Fitzroy, the illegitimate son of Henry VIII of England turned vampire, in modern-day Toronto, with a female former Toronto detective in the starring role. A 2008 series from HBO, entitled True Blood, gives a Southern Gothic take on the vampire theme.

In 2008 the BBC Three series Being Human became popular in Britain. It featured an unconventional trio of a vampire, a werewolf and a ghost who are sharing a flat in Bristol.[87] Another popular vampire-related show is CW’s The Vampire Diaries. The continuing popularity of the vampire theme has been ascribed to a combination of two factors: the representation of sexuality and the perennial dread of mortality.

The role-playing game Vampire: The Masquerade has been influential in modern vampire fiction and elements of its terminology, such as embrace and sire, appear in contemporary fiction. Popular video games about vampires include Castlevania, which is an extension of the original Bram Stoker novel Dracula, and Legacy of Kain.

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The Walking Dead Recap: Season 9 Premiere [Spoiler …

Warning: The following contains spoilers for the Season 9 premiere of The Walking Dead. If you havent watched yet, proceed at your own risk.

So far, so good. Sunday night, The Walking Dead kicked off its ninth season and the AMC dramas first under new showrunner Angela Kang, who also wrote the episode with a fairly satisfying hour-plus that included a fateful trip to Washington, D.C., a proposal of marriage and a couple of deaths (one of which was a long time coming!). For whom did A New Beginning mark the end? Read on and find out.

I DONT LIKE SPIDERS | As the episode began, we were treated to glimpses of not only how much Alexandria had been rebuilt in the 18-month time jump that followed the Season 8 finale but also the happy home life that Rick and Michonne had established with Judith. (Adorably, the moppet insisted on painting her dad with a grumpy face and big tummy in her extended-family portrait.) Before most of our regulars convened for the aforementioned field trip to D.C., we also got a peek at the goings-on at the Sanctuary (where Daryl put the kibosh on the use of a walker as a scarecrow) and in the woods (where Aaron, perhaps laying the groundwork for a new flirtation, expressed an interest in picking up Jesus martial-arts skills). Following the super-stylish new opening credits, a large group of survivors hit the Museum of Natural History to score seeds (thanks to intel from Anne, a former teacher) and old-timey equipment that didnt run on gas, which had become almost as scarce as Internet service.

At first, the visit was kind of a lark. Though a walker grabbed Siddiq by the leg, he was really less grossed out by the zombie than he was by the spiders that appeared to have made a home of its head. And Gabriel dispatched a walker in just the right spot in front of an exhibit to make it appear that the undead were the final stage in the evolution of man. Or the de-evolution of man, as Anne put it. Cyndie bonded with Daryl over those that were no longer with them; Maggie told Carol and Michonne that, since Gregory lost the Hilltop election to her, hed been being nice (a sure sign that he was up to no good!); and, amid all their talk of democracys rebirth, Carol couldnt help but marvel at the irony of her having shacked up with a king. As for the task at hand, the group miraculously got a huge wagon down the stairs and safely across a glass floor that overlooked a level overrun with walkers. When afterwards, Ezekiel tried to cross the floor tied to a plow, he wasnt so lucky he wound up crashing through and dangling just above the zombies like a carrot in front of a stampede of horses. Once he was safe, Carol sweetly held and kissed him like she had no intention of ever letting him go.

WILL YOU MARRY ME? | As the group headed back to their respective communities, Alden informed a young Hilltopper named Ken that another kid, Marco, wanted to learn the blacksmith trade from Kens dad, Earl. This, despite the fact that, as Marco put it, I dont think Ive ever seen the guy smile. Nearby, Ezekiel popped the question to Carol he had a ring and everything! But she refused to be proposed to at that moment. This is not happening on a horse, she said. Regardless, I love you, he replied, and I always will. (If Season 4 of Fear the Walking Dead has taught me anything, its that a little romance can go a long way toward improving what is ordinarily a pretty grim show it adds a bit of light to the darkness and raises the stakes when the inevitable occurs.) Shortly, the gang was intercepted by Rosita with a report that two herds of walkers had merged and taken down a vital bridge. On the groups alternate route home, their horses were unable to pull the trailer through a huge puddle of mud. By the time Rick & Co. had freed the wagon, they were beset by walkers, one of which bit Ken when he nobly tried to save his horse.

Back at the Hilltop that evening, Maggie broke it to Earl (John Finn) and wife Tammy (Brett Butler) that their son had been killed. Earl took the bad news quietly; Tammy, not so much. She made it abundantly clear that she blamed Maggie for Kens death, which she noted had yielded what? Supplies to help the Sanctuary, not even the Hilltop! That being the case, she didnt want Maggie at the boys funeral. I voted for you, she spat, but were not friends. She also let slip that shed been talking to Gregory or, as she put it, the guy whod always put the Hilltop first. (Uh-oh.) Following the funeral, Gregory paid a visit to the grieving parents with a bottle of whiskey. After getting Tammy soused enough to be put to bed, the weasel stayed behind with Earl, pouring a glass for the recovering alcoholic and intoxicating him with not only booze but talk that disgruntled Hilltoppers like him didnt have to put up with Maggies priorities. But shes the leader, Earl said. She doesnt have to be, replied Gregory, all but sprouting devil horns.

BLESS YOU, RICK GRIMES | Meanwhile, Rick, Michonne and Daryl delivered to the Sanctuary its share of the haul from the museum. Of note: Daryl was now in charge of the place (and hating every minute of it); it was struggling since, as Daryl put it, Nothing grows here its a damn factory, man!; and Rick was regarded by some of the Saviors as a cross between a rock star and Jesus, and others as public enemy No. 1 (as evidenced by the Saviors Save Us! We Are Still Negan! graffiti that had been popping up). During a moment alone with Rick, Daryl admitted that he no longer wanted to lead the Sanctuary and that he missed the old days. There aint no us anymore. Everyones everywhere, he said. That small group we had back in the beginning could do anything. Rick tried to explain that, well, things have changed, but Daryl wasnt in any mood to hear it. You changed em, Rick, he said. So much so that Daryl didnt want to return to Alexandria, he wanted to return to the Hilltop. (Not a surprise, but still ouch.)

Having overheard the conversation, Carol later approached Daryl to share a smoke or so he thought; she actually wanted to put his cigarette out. Those thingsll kill you, she said, adding that shed noticed he never sleeps whereas her wannabe fianc sleeps like a baby. Does he snore fancy, too? asked Daryl. He was just kidding, mind you. He was happy that Carol was happy, and she was glad I have pookies approval of the romance. Maybe Ezekiel was a little corny, she admitted. But after what I went through with Ed, corny is really nice. In the end, she offered to take over the Sanctuary for Daryl. Was she going to bring along Ezekiel and Henry? Erm, she hadnt told her beau her idea yet. But she thought it was a good one nonetheless. On one hand, she wanted to help out; on the other, she didnt want to rush their relationship.

THEY DONT WANT NEGAN, THEY WANT FOOD | While Daryl and Carol were reconnecting, Michonne went from teasing her significant other about his status as the famous Rick Grimes to engaging in some pretty heavy pillow talk. Seeing [Negans] name on the wall she mused. Sometimes I think maybe we shouldve just killed him. (A little late for that now!) Still, the visit to the museum had started a plan formulating in her brain to unify the communities: They needed to write a charter to lay out the rules of behavior, punishments, expectations, etc. It could pull people closer together, agreed Rick make an us of a larger us. So while Rick got to the work on repairing the bridge, Michonne would get started on the charter. Howd I get so lucky finding you? he whispered as they snuggled under the covers. Weve both lost enough, she replied. Its time we won a little, dont you think? And with that, it appeared that she was about to get it on with the famous Rick Grimes.

At the Hilltop, Maggie was walking cute, melon-headed baby Hershel in the moonlight when she was oh, s approached by Gregory, who might be the only thing worse than a walker a person could come across in the dark. Still being nice, the scoundrel complimented his worthy adversary, then mentioned that oh, by the way, it looked like Glenns grave had been defaced. I hope, he oozed as much as said, it wasnt that someone was angry. Immediately rushing to her husbands gravesite, Maggie was violently attacked by a hooded man. Thankfully, Hershels crying brought Enid and Alden out to help save Maggie from no big shock there Earl. Knowing full well that Gregory had put the grieving dad up to the treacherous task, Margaret made a beeline for her nemesis. You cant even murder someone right! she marveled. As if to prove her point, he then tried to stab her again, unsuccessfully!

DO YOU HAVE ANY FINAL WORDS? | The following day, as Carol put Jerry in charge of Ezekiel, she promised her boyfriend that she wasnt running away from him by remaining at the Sanctuary. Ill be content to move at your speed, Lady Carol, he responded, though the waiting is such sweet sorrow. Shortly thereafter, Rick, Michonne and Daryl arrived at the Hilltop. During a visit with Maggie, Rick expressed his desire for her to visit Alexandria though he knew very well why she couldnt. He then acknowledged that the Hilltop had given an awful lot during the rebuilding of the communities. But Im asking for more, he added food and supplies to feed the workers as they repaired the bridge. Maggie was OK with Hilltoppers working on the project if they wanted to but nixed the idea of handing over more supplies for nothing the Saviors would have to do most of the work on the bridge and send over the fuel made from their dead corn.

Rick didnt seem to have expected Maggie to draw such a hard line in the sand. But she was sticking by it. Though it was a bummer that the Sanctuary was struggling, she said, they surrendered. We didnt kill em. Thats it. While Rick picked his jaw up off the floor, Maggie reminded him that, before the war, hed told her that hed soon be following her. But you didnt, she continued, cause I wasnt someone to follow. That changes now. (Loving the tough new Maggie!) That night, the Hilltops leader ensured that all of the youngsters were tucked away, then told the gathered adults, People need to understand that at the Hilltop, the punishment fits the crime. As such, Gregory was going to be hanged! Lily-livered to the bitter end, he argued that she must be ashamed, killing him in the dead of night that way. Im not ashamed, she replied matter-of-factly. And, though Michonne tried to stop the execution as some kids had wandered out, the villain was (finally) put to death.

So, what did you think of the Season 9 premiere? Grade it in the poll below, then hit the comments.

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The Walking Dead Recap: Season 9 Premiere [Spoiler …


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