Scary Movie (film series) – Wikipedia

Scary Movie is a series of American horror comedy parody films created by Keenen Ivory Wayans with his younger brothers, Shawn Wayans and Marlon Wayans, that mainly specialize in parodying horror films, which have collectively grossed over $895 million at the box-office worldwide. The two main recurring actors of the first four installments were Anna Faris and Regina Hall as Cindy Campbell and Brenda Meeks, joined by new or recurring actors and characters.

The franchise was conceptualized by The Wayans Brothers, who wrote and directed the first two films before leaving the franchise. Their entries were produced by Dimension Films and distributed by two different studios: Miramax Films, as it was originally the studio’s genre film label during executive producers Bob and Harvey Weinstein’s run and produced the first three films, and The Weinstein Companythe brothers’ subsequently formed studiowhich produced the rest of the series’ release after the Weinsteins departed Miramax and took the Dimension label with them. The franchise had 1 movie in 2013 with Scary Movie 5, which doesn’t have Anna Faris or Regina Hall, but with new characters, and is still in the original film series and timeline.

Scary Movie is the first film that premiered in the series. Scary Movie was the highest-grossing film of the series, grossing $278,019,771 worldwide. It is a spoof of several films, with a focus on the Scream and I Know What You Did Last Summer series.[1]

After a group of teenagers (consisting of Cindy Campbell (Anna Faris), Bobby Prinze (Jon Abrahams), Buffy Gilmore (Shannon Elizabeth), Greg Phillipe (Lochlyn Munro), Ray Wilkins (Shawn Wayans), and Brenda Meeks (Regina Hall)) accidentally hit an old man with their car they decide to dump his body in a lake and never talk about it again (in a spoof of I Know What You Did Last Summer). A year later a person with a Scream mask kills them one by one.

Scary Movie 2 is the second in franchise. In the U.S., the film grossed $71,308,997. Worldwide, it grossed $141,220,678. This is one of two Scary Movie films to receive an R-rating and also marks the end of the Wayans siblings’ involvement with the series.

The film starts with a parody of The Exorcist, in which Megan Voorhees (sharing the same last name as the fictional serial killer Jason Voorhees) is possessed by Hugh Kane, and two priests, Father McFeely and Father Harris (James Woods and Andy Richter) have to force Hugh Kane out. But after Megan insults Harris’s mother he shoots her in the head.

Cindy, Brenda, Ray, and Shorty return in this film. Greg, Buffy, and Bobby are replaced by Buddy (Christopher Masterson), Theo (Kathleen Robertson), and Alex (Tori Spelling).

The film then merges into a parody of The Haunting with story beginning when a perverted college professor, Professor Oldman (Tim Curry) and his wheel-chair bound assistant, Dwight (David Cross), plan to study ghosts inside a haunted mansion with the clueless teens as bait.

When at the house, strange things happen, Ray gets attacked by a clown (whom he also rapes), Shorty gets attacked by a living marijuana plant, Cindy gets in a fight with a possessed cat, and Dwight has an argument with a bad mouthed pet bird. When they find out about the professor’s plan they try to escape the house, finding out that there is a ghost who still lives in the house. They must defeat the ghost in order to escape.

Scary Movie 3 is the third film in the series. With $220,673,217 earned worldwide,[2] it is the second most successful film in the series. The plot of the film is a spoof of The Ring and Signs as well as several other films and celebrities. Michael Jackson planned to sue the filmmakers for parodying him in such a way that made him seem like a child molester and having a fake nose.[3] This was the first Scary Movie film to receive a PG-13 rating in the United States[2] as well as the first to have no involvement from the Wayans family.[4][5]

The film revolves around strange crop circles found near an old farm and the circulation of an unusual videotape. Upon watching this tape, the phone rings and a creepy voice says: “You’re going to die in seven days”. Cindy falls in love with a rapper named George (a parody of Jimmy “B-Rabbit” Smith Jr. of 8 Mile), when she hears that she is to die in seven days. Meanwhile, George and his older brother Tom – the farmers who discovered the crop circles in their corn field, learn that extraterrestrials are coming to Earth come to destroy the killer responsible for the deaths of those who have watched the tape.

Scary Movie 4 is the fourth in the series. The film opened with $40 Million at the weekend box office, making it the third best opening in the series. With a $178,049,620 at the worldwide box office, Scary Movie 4 ranks as the third highest grossing entry. The main target of spoof was War of the Worlds, Saw, The Village and The Grudge. The film concludes the story-arc that began with the first film and is also the last in the series to feature any of the original cast members.

Scary Movie 5 is the fifth installment in the series and is the first film to not feature Anna Faris and Regina Hall. The film was panned by critics, and grossed $72,992,798 worldwide in the box office, thus being the least successful film in the franchise.

Jody (Ashley Tisdale) and Dan Sanders (Simon Rex) move into a new home after adopting three mysterious children. There are videocameras to record the events and Jody and Dan soon discover that a powerful creature known as “Mama” is haunting them, trying to claim their newly adopted children.

Scary Movie’s main parody is of Scream with elements of I Know What You Did Last Summer, The Sixth Sense, and The Matrix.

Scary Movie 2 primarily targets The Haunting; the film’s opening sequence is that of The Exorcist while the rest of the film contains traces of What Lies Beneath, Poltergeist, and The Amityville Horror.

Scary Movie 3’s general parodies are The Ring and Signs. It also features The Others, Airplane!, 8 Mile, The Matrix, and Minority Report.

Scary Movie 4 largely makes fun of the Saw films (generally the first two), The Village, The Grudge, and War of the Worlds, as well as Million Dollar Baby, Brokeback Mountain, and President Bush’s 9/11 book reading incident.

Scary Movie V’s central areas of satire are the Paranormal Activity film series, Mama, Black Swan, and Rise of the Planet of the Apes. Other notable parodies are those of The Cabin in the Woods, Evil Dead, Fifty Shades of Grey, Inception, Sinister, and Madea.

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Scary Movie (film series) – Wikipedia

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Vampire – Wikipedia

The notion of vampirism has existed for millennia. Cultures such as the Mesopotamians, Hebrews, Ancient Greeks, and Romans had tales of demons and spirits which are considered precursors to modern vampires. However, despite the occurrence of vampire-like creatures in these ancient civilizations, the folklore for the entity we know today as the vampire originates almost exclusively from early-18th-century southeastern Europe,[5] when verbal traditions of many ethnic groups of the region were recorded and published. In most cases, vampires are revenants of evil beings, suicide victims, or witches, but they can also be created by a malevolent spirit possessing a corpse or by being bitten by a vampire. Belief in such legends became so pervasive that in some areas it caused mass hysteria and even public executions of people believed to be vampires.[18]

It is difficult to make a single, definitive description of the folkloric vampire, though there are several elements common to many European legends. Vampires were usually reported as bloated in appearance, and ruddy, purplish, or dark in colour; these characteristics were often attributed to the recent drinking of blood. Indeed, blood was often seen seeping from the mouth and nose when one was seen in its shroud or coffin and its left eye was often open.[19] It would be clad in the linen shroud it was buried in, and its teeth, hair, and nails may have grown somewhat, though in general fangs were not a feature.[20] Although vampires were generally described as undead, some folktales spoke of them as living beings.[21][22][23][24][25][26][27]

The causes of vampiric generation were many and varied in original folklore. In Slavic and Chinese traditions, any corpse that was jumped over by an animal, particularly a dog or a cat, was feared to become one of the undead.[28] A body with a wound that had not been treated with boiling water was also at risk. In Russian folklore, vampires were said to have once been witches or people who had rebelled against the Russian Orthodox Church while they were alive.[29]

Cultural practices often arose that were intended to prevent a recently deceased loved one from turning into an undead revenant. Burying a corpse upside-down was widespread, as was placing earthly objects, such as scythes or sickles,[30] near the grave to satisfy any demons entering the body or to appease the dead so that it would not wish to arise from its coffin. This method resembles the Ancient Greek practice of placing an obolus in the corpse’s mouth to pay the toll to cross the River Styx in the underworld. It has been argued that instead, the coin was intended to ward off any evil spirits from entering the body, and this may have influenced later vampire folklore. This tradition persisted in modern Greek folklore about the vrykolakas, in which a wax cross and piece of pottery with the inscription “Jesus Christ conquers” were placed on the corpse to prevent the body from becoming a vampire.[31]

Other methods commonly practised in Europe included severing the tendons at the knees or placing poppy seeds, millet, or sand on the ground at the grave site of a presumed vampire; this was intended to keep the vampire occupied all night by counting the fallen grains,[32] indicating an association of vampires with arithmomania. Similar Chinese narratives state that if a vampire-like being came across a sack of rice, it would have to count every grain; this is a theme encountered in myths from the Indian subcontinent, as well as in South American tales of witches and other sorts of evil or mischievous spirits or beings.[33]

In Albanian folklore, the dhampir is the hybrid child of the karkanxholl (a werewolf-like creature with an iron mail shirt) or the lugat (a water-dwelling ghost or monster). The dhampir sprung of a karkanxholl has the unique ability to discern the karkanxholl; from this derives the expression the dhampir knows the lugat. The lugat cannot be seen, he can only be killed by the dhampir, who himself is usually the son of a lugat. In different regions, animals can be revenants as lugats; also, living people during their sleep. Dhampiraj is also an Albanian surname.[34]

Many elaborate rituals were used to identify a vampire. One method of finding a vampire’s grave involved leading a virgin boy through a graveyard or church grounds on a virgin stallionthe horse would supposedly balk at the grave in question.[29] Generally a black horse was required, though in Albania it should be white.[35] Holes appearing in the earth over a grave were taken as a sign of vampirism.[36]

Corpses thought to be vampires were generally described as having a healthier appearance than expected, plump and showing little or no signs of decomposition.[37] In some cases, when suspected graves were opened, villagers even described the corpse as having fresh blood from a victim all over its face.[38] Evidence that a vampire was active in a given locality included death of cattle, sheep, relatives or neighbours. Folkloric vampires could also make their presence felt by engaging in minor poltergeist-like activity, such as hurling stones on roofs or moving household objects,[39] and pressing on people in their sleep.[40]

Apotropaics, items able to ward off revenants, are common in vampire folklore. Garlic is a common example,[41] a branch of wild rose and hawthorn plant are said to harm vampires, and in Europe, sprinkling mustard seeds on the roof of a house was said to keep them away.[42] Other apotropaics include sacred items, for example a crucifix, rosary, or holy water. Vampires are said to be unable to walk on consecrated ground, such as that of churches or temples, or cross running water.[43]

Although not traditionally regarded as an apotropaic, mirrors have been used to ward off vampires when placed, facing outwards, on a door (in some cultures, vampires do not have a reflection and sometimes do not cast a shadow, perhaps as a manifestation of the vampire’s lack of a soul).[44] This attribute, although not universal (the Greek vrykolakas/tympanios was capable of both reflection and shadow), was used by Bram Stoker in Dracula and has remained popular with subsequent authors and filmmakers.[45]

Some traditions also hold that a vampire cannot enter a house unless invited by the owner, although after the first invitation they can come and go as they please.[44] Though folkloric vampires were believed to be more active at night, they were not generally considered vulnerable to sunlight.[45]

Methods of destroying suspected vampires varied, with staking the most commonly cited method, particularly in southern Slavic cultures.[46]Ash was the preferred wood in Russia and the Baltic states,[47] or hawthorn in Serbia,[48] with a record of oak in Silesia.[49]Aspen was also the wood of choice for stakes, as it was believed that Christ’s cross was made from aspen (aspen branches on the graves of purported vampires were also believed to prevent their risings at night).[50] Potential vampires were most often staked through the heart, though the mouth was targeted in Russia and northern Germany[51][52] and the stomach in north-eastern Serbia.[53]

Piercing the skin of the chest was a way of “deflating” the bloated vampire. This is similar to the act of burying sharp objects, such as sickles, in with the corpse, so that they may penetrate the skin if the body bloats sufficiently while transforming into a revenant.[54] In one striking example of the latter, the corpses of five people in a graveyard near the Polish village of Dravsko, dating from the 17th and 18th centuries, were buried with sickles placed around their necks or across their abdomens.[55]

Decapitation was the preferred method in German and western Slavic areas, with the head buried between the feet, behind the buttocks or away from the body.[46] This act was seen as a way of hastening the departure of the soul, which in some cultures, was said to linger in the corpse. The vampire’s head, body, or clothes could also be spiked and pinned to the earth to prevent rising.[56]

Romani people drove steel or iron needles into a corpse’s heart and placed bits of steel in the mouth, over the eyes, ears and between the fingers at the time of burial. They also placed hawthorn in the corpse’s sock or drove a hawthorn stake through the legs. In a 16th-century burial near Venice, a brick forced into the mouth of a female corpse has been interpreted as a vampire-slaying ritual by the archaeologists who discovered it in 2006.[57]

Further measures included pouring boiling water over the grave or complete incineration of the body. In the Balkans, a vampire could also be killed by being shot or drowned, by repeating the funeral service, by sprinkling holy water on the body, or by exorcism. In Romania, garlic could be placed in the mouth, and as recently as the 19th century, the precaution of shooting a bullet through the coffin was taken. For resistant cases, the body was dismembered and the pieces burned, mixed with water, and administered to family members as a cure. In Saxon regions of Germany, a lemon was placed in the mouth of suspected vampires.[58]

In Bulgaria, over 100 skeletons with metal objects, such as plough bits, embedded in the torso have been discovered.[59][60]

Tales of supernatural beings consuming the blood or flesh of the living have been found in nearly every culture around the world for many centuries.[61] The term vampire did not exist in ancient times. Blood drinking and similar activities were attributed to demons or spirits who would eat flesh and drink blood; even the Devil was considered synonymous with the vampire.[62]

Almost every nation has associated blood drinking with some kind of revenant or demon, or in some cases a deity. In India, for example, tales of vetlas, ghoul-like beings that inhabit corpses, have been compiled in the Baitl Pacs; a prominent story in the Kathsaritsgara tells of King Vikramditya and his nightly quests to capture an elusive one.[63]Pica, the returned spirits of evil-doers or those who died insane, also bear vampiric attributes.[64]

The Persians were one of the first civilizations to have tales of blood-drinking demons: creatures attempting to drink blood from men were depicted on excavated pottery shards.[65] Ancient Babylonia and Assyria had tales of the mythical Lilitu,[66] synonymous with and giving rise to Lilith (Hebrew ) and her daughters the Lilu from Hebrew demonology. Lilitu was considered a demon and was often depicted as subsisting on the blood of babies.[66] And Estries, female shape changing, blood drinking demons, were said to roam the night among the population, seeking victims. According to Sefer Hasidim, Estries were creatures created in the twilight hours before God rested.[67] An injured Estrie could be healed by eating bread and salt given her by her attacker.

Greco-Roman mythology described the Empusae,[68] the Lamia,[69] and the striges. Over time the first two terms became general words to describe witches and demons respectively. Empusa was the daughter of the goddess Hecate and was described as a demonic, bronze-footed creature. She feasted on blood by transforming into a young woman and seduced men as they slept before drinking their blood.[68] The Lamia preyed on young children in their beds at night, sucking their blood, as did the gelloudes or Gello.[69] Like the Lamia, the striges feasted on children, but also preyed on adults. They were described as having the bodies of crows or birds in general, and were later incorporated into Roman mythology as strix, a kind of nocturnal bird that fed on human flesh and blood.[70]

In Azerbaijanese mythology Xortdan is the troubled soul of the dead rising from the grave.[71] Some Hortdan can be living people with certain magical properties. Some of the properties of the Hortdan include: the ability to transform into an animal, invisibility, and the propensity to drain the vitality of victims via blood loss.

Many myths surrounding vampires originated during the medieval period. The 12th-century English historians and chroniclers Walter Map and William of Newburgh recorded accounts of revenants,[18][73] though records in English legends of vampiric beings after this date are scant.[74] The Old Norse draugr is another medieval example of an undead creature with similarities to vampires.[75]

Vampires proper originate in folklore widely reported from Eastern Europe in the late 17th and 18th centuries. These tales formed the basis of the vampire legend that later entered Germany and England, where they were subsequently embellished and popularized. One of the earliest recordings of vampire activity came from the region of Istria in modern Croatia, in 1672.[76] Local reports cited the local vampire Jure Grando of the village Khring near Tinjan as the cause of panic among the villagers.[77]

A former peasant, Jure died in 1656. However, local villagers claimed he returned from the dead and began drinking blood from the people and sexually harassing his widow. The village leader ordered a stake to be driven through his heart, but when the method failed to kill him, he was subsequently beheaded with better results.[78] That was the first case in history that a real person had been described as a vampire.

During the 18th century, there was a frenzy of vampire sightings in Eastern Europe, with frequent stakings and grave diggings to identify and kill the potential revenants. Even government officials engaged in the hunting and staking of vampires.[79] Despite being called the Age of Enlightenment, during which most folkloric legends were quelled, the belief in vampires increased dramatically, resulting in a mass hysteria throughout most of Europe.[18]

The panic began with an outbreak of alleged vampire attacks in East Prussia in 1721 and in the Habsburg Monarchy from 1725 to 1734, which spread to other localities. Two famous vampire cases, the first to be officially recorded, involved the corpses of Petar Blagojevich and Milo ear from Serbia. Blagojevich was reported to have died at the age of 62, but allegedly returned after his death asking his son for food. When the son refused, he was found dead the following day. Blagojevich supposedly returned and attacked some neighbours who died from loss of blood.[79]

In the second case, Milo, an ex-soldier turned farmer who allegedly was attacked by a vampire years before, died while haying. After his death, people began to die in the surrounding area and it was widely believed that Milo had returned to prey on the neighbours.[80][81] Another famous Serbian legend involving vampires concentrates around a certain Sava Savanovi living in a watermill and killing and drinking blood from millers. The character was later used in a story written by Serbian writer Milovan Glii and in the Yugoslav 1973 horror film Leptirica inspired by the story.

The two incidents were well-documented. Government officials examined the bodies, wrote case reports, and published books throughout Europe.[81] The hysteria, commonly referred to as the “18th-Century Vampire Controversy”, raged for a generation. The problem was exacerbated by rural epidemics of so-claimed vampire attacks, undoubtedly caused by the higher amount of superstition that was present in village communities, with locals digging up bodies and in some cases, staking them.[82]

In 1597, King James wrote a dissertation on witchcraft titled Daemonologie in which he wrote the belief that demons could possess both the living and the dead. Within his classification of demons, he explained the concept through the notion that incubi and succubae could possess the corpse of the deceased and walk the earth. As a devil borrows a dead body, it would seem so visibly and naturally to any man who converses with them and that any substance within the body would remain intolerably cold to others which they abuse. [83]

From 1679, Philippe Rohr devotes an essay to the dead who chew their shrouds in their graves, subject resumed later by Otto in 1732, and then by Michael Ranft in 1734. The subject was based on the peculiar phenomenon that when digging up graves, it was discovered that some corpses had at some point either devoured the interior fabric of their coffin or their own limbs.[84] This distinguishes the relationship between vampirism and nightmares which were believed that many cases of vampirism were simply illusions brought by the imagination. While in 1732 an anonymous writer calling itself “the doctor Weimar” discusses the non-putrefaction of these creatures, from a theological point of view.[85] in 1733, Johann Christoph Harenberg wrote a general treatise on vampirism and the Marquis d’Argens Boyer cites local cases. Theologians and clergymen are also addressing the topic.[86]

Some theological disputes arose. The non-decay of vampires’ bodies could recall the incorruption of the bodies of the saints of the Catholic Church. A paragraph on vampires was included in the second edition (1749) of De servorum Dei beatificatione et sanctorum canonizatione, On the beatification of the servants of God and on canonization of the blessed, written by Prospero Lambertini (Pope Benedict XIV).[87] In his opinion, while the incorruption of the bodies of saints was the effect of a divine intervention, all the phenomena attributed to vampires were purely natural or the fruit of “imagination, terror and fear”. In other words, vampires did not exist[88]

Dom Augustine Calmet, a French theologian and scholar, put together a comprehensive treatise in 1751 titled Treatise on the Apparitions of Spirits and on Vampires or Revenants which investigated the existence of vampires, demons, spectres and many other matters relating to the occult of his time throughout European history. Calmet conducted extensive research and amassed judicial reports of vampiric incidents and extensively researched theological and mythological accounts as well, utilizing the scientific method in his analysis to come up with methods for determining the validity for cases of this nature. He had numerous readers, including both a critical Voltaire and supportive demonologists who interpreted the treatise as claiming that vampires existed.[82]Philosophical Dictionary, Voltaire wrote:[89]

These vampires were corpses, who went out of their graves at night to suck the blood of the living, either at their throats or stomachs, after which they returned to their cemeteries. The persons so sucked waned, grew pale, and fell into consumption; while the sucking corpses grew fat, got rosy, and enjoyed an excellent appetite. It was in Poland, Hungary, Silesia, Moravia, Austria, and Lorraine, that the dead made this good cheer.

The controversy in Austria only ceased when Empress Maria Theresa of Austria sent her personal physician, Gerard van Swieten, to investigate the claims of vampiric entities. He concluded that vampires did not exist and the Empress passed laws prohibiting the opening of graves and desecration of bodies, sounding the end of the vampire epidemics. Other European countries followed suit. Despite this condemnation, the vampire lived on in artistic works and in local superstition.[82]

Beings having many of the attributes of European vampires appear in the folklore of Africa, Asia, North and South America, and India. Classified as vampires, all share the thirst for blood.[90]

Various regions of Africa have folktales featuring beings with vampiric abilities: in West Africa the Ashanti people tell of the iron-toothed and tree-dwelling asanbosam,[91] and the Ewe people of the adze, which can take the form of a firefly and hunts children.[92] The eastern Cape region has the impundulu, which can take the form of a large taloned bird and can summon thunder and lightning, and the Betsileo people of Madagascar tell of the ramanga, an outlaw or living vampire who drinks the blood and eats the nail clippings of nobles.[93]

The Loogaroo is an example of how a vampire belief can result from a combination of beliefs, here a mixture of French and African Vodu or voodoo. The term Loogaroo possibly comes from the French loup-garou (meaning “werewolf”) and is common in the culture of Mauritius. However, the stories of the Loogaroo are widespread through the Caribbean Islands and Louisiana in the United States.[94] Similar female monsters are the Soucouyant of Trinidad, and the Tunda and Patasola of Colombian folklore, while the Mapuche of southern Chile have the bloodsucking snake known as the Peuchen.[95]Aloe vera hung backwards behind or near a door was thought to ward off vampiric beings in South American superstition.[33] Aztec mythology described tales of the Cihuateteo, skeletal-faced spirits of those who died in childbirth who stole children and entered into sexual liaisons with the living, driving them mad.[29]

During the late 18th and 19th centuries the belief in vampires was widespread in parts of New England, particularly in Rhode Island and Eastern Connecticut. There are many documented cases of families disinterring loved ones and removing their hearts in the belief that the deceased was a vampire who was responsible for sickness and death in the family, although the term “vampire” was never actually used to describe the deceased. The deadly disease tuberculosis, or “consumption” as it was known at the time, was believed to be caused by nightly visitations on the part of a dead family member who had died of consumption themselves.[96] The most famous, and most recently recorded, case of suspected vampirism is that of nineteen-year-old Mercy Brown, who died in Exeter, Rhode Island in 1892. Her father, assisted by the family physician, removed her from her tomb two months after her death, cut out her heart and burned it to ashes.[97]

Rooted in older folklore, the modern belief in vampires spread throughout Asia with tales of ghoulish entities from the mainland, to vampiric beings from the islands of Southeast Asia.

South Asia also developed other vampiric legends. The Bhta or Prt is the soul of a man who died an untimely death. It wanders around animating dead bodies at night, attacking the living much like a ghoul.[98] In northern India, there is the Brahmarkhasa, a vampire-like creature with a head encircled by intestines and a skull from which it drank blood. The figure of the Vetala who appears in South Asian legend and story may sometimes be rendered as “Vampire” (see the section on “Ancient Beliefs” above).

Although vampires have appeared in Japanese cinema since the late 1950s, the folklore behind it is western in origin.[99] However, the Nukekubi is a being whose head and neck detach from its body to fly about seeking human prey at night.[100]

Legends of female vampire-like beings who can detach parts of their upper body also occur in the Philippines, Malaysia and Indonesia. There are two main vampire-like creatures in the Philippines: the Tagalog Mandurugo (“blood-sucker”) and the Visayan Manananggal (“self-segmenter”). The mandurugo is a variety of the aswang that takes the form of an attractive girl by day, and develops wings and a long, hollow, thread-like tongue by night. The tongue is used to suck up blood from a sleeping victim.[101]

The manananggal is described as being an older, beautiful woman capable of severing its upper torso in order to fly into the night with huge bat-like wings and prey on unsuspecting, sleeping pregnant women in their homes. They use an elongated proboscis-like tongue to suck fetuses from these pregnant women. They also prefer to eat entrails (specifically the heart and the liver) and the phlegm of sick people.[101]

The Malaysian Penanggalan may be either a beautiful old or young woman who obtained her beauty through the active use of black magic or other unnatural means, and is most commonly described in local folklore to be dark or demonic in nature. She is able to detach her fanged head which flies around in the night looking for blood, typically from pregnant women.[102] Malaysians would hang jeruju (thistles) around the doors and windows of houses, hoping the Penanggalan would not enter for fear of catching its intestines on the thorns.[103]

The Leyak is a similar being from Balinese folklore of Indonesia.[104] A Kuntilanak or Matianak in Indonesia,[105] or Pontianak or Langsuir in Malaysia,[106] is a woman who died during childbirth and became undead, seeking revenge and terrorizing villages. She appeared as an attractive woman with long black hair that covered a hole in the back of her neck, with which she sucked the blood of children. Filling the hole with her hair would drive her off. Corpses had their mouths filled with glass beads, eggs under each armpit, and needles in their palms to prevent them from becoming langsuir. This description would also fit the Sundel Bolongs.[107]

Jiangshi, sometimes called “Chinese vampires” by Westerners, are reanimated corpses that hop around, killing living creatures to absorb life essence (q) from their victims. They are said to be created when a person’s soul ( p) fails to leave the deceased’s body.[108] However, some have disputed the comparison of jiang shi with vampires, as jiang shi are usually represented as mindless creatures with no independent thought.[109] One unusual feature of this monster is its greenish-white furry skin, perhaps derived from fungus or mould growing on corpses.[110] Jiangshi legends have inspired a genre of jiangshi films and literature in Hong Kong and East Asia. Films like Encounters of the Spooky Kind and Mr. Vampire were released during the jiangshi cinematic boom of the 1980s and 1990s.[111][112]

In modern fiction, the vampire tends to be depicted as a suave, charismatic villain.[20] Despite the general disbelief in vampiric entities, occasional sightings of vampires are reported. Indeed, vampire hunting societies still exist, although they are largely formed for social reasons.[18] Allegations of vampire attacks swept through the African country of Malawi during late 2002 and early 2003, with mobs stoning one individual to death and attacking at least four others, including Governor Eric Chiwaya, based on the belief that the government was colluding with vampires.[113]

In early 1970 local press spread rumours that a vampire haunted Highgate Cemetery in London. Amateur vampire hunters flocked in large numbers to the cemetery. Several books have been written about the case, notably by Sean Manchester, a local man who was among the first to suggest the existence of the “Highgate Vampire” and who later claimed to have exorcised and destroyed a whole nest of vampires in the area.[114] In January 2005, rumours circulated that an attacker had bitten a number of people in Birmingham, England, fuelling concerns about a vampire roaming the streets. However, local police stated that no such crime had been reported and that the case appears to be an urban legend.[115]

In 2006, a physics professor at the University of Central Florida wrote a paper arguing that it is mathematically impossible for vampires to exist, based on geometric progression. According to the paper, if the first vampire had appeared on 1 January 1600, and it fed once a month (which is less often than what is depicted in films and folklore), and every victim turned into a vampire, then within two and a half years the entire human population of the time would have become vampires.[116] The paper made no attempt to address the credibility of the assumption that every vampire victim would turn into a vampire.

In one of the more notable cases of vampiric entities in the modern age, the chupacabra (“goat-sucker”) of Puerto Rico and Mexico is said to be a creature that feeds upon the flesh or drinks the blood of domesticated animals, leading some to consider it a kind of vampire. The “chupacabra hysteria” was frequently associated with deep economic and political crises, particularly during the mid-1990s.[117]

In Europe, where much of the vampire folklore originates, the vampire is usually considered a fictitious being, although many communities may have embraced the revenant for economic purposes. In some cases, especially in small localities, vampire superstition is still rampant and sightings or claims of vampire attacks occur frequently. In Romania during February 2004, several relatives of Toma Petre feared that he had become a vampire. They dug up his corpse, tore out his heart, burned it, and mixed the ashes with water in order to drink it.[118]

Vampirism and the Vampire lifestyle also represent a relevant part of modern day’s occultist movements.[119] The mythos of the vampire, his magickal qualities, allure, and predatory archetype express a strong symbolism that can be used in ritual, energy work, and magick, and can even be adopted as a spiritual system.[120] The vampire has been part of the occult society in Europe for centuries and has spread into the American sub-culture as well for more than a decade, being strongly influenced by and mixed with the neo gothic aesthetics.[121]

‘Coven’ has been used as a collective noun for vampires, possibly based on the Wiccan usage. An alternative collective noun is a ‘house’ of vampires.[122] David Malki, author of Wondermark, suggests in Wondermark No. 566 the use of the collective noun ‘basement’, as in “A basement of vampires.”[123]

Commentators have offered many theories for the origins of vampire beliefs, trying to explain the superstition and sometimes mass hysteria caused by vampires. Everything ranging from premature burial to the early ignorance of the body’s decomposition cycle after death has been cited as the cause for the belief in vampires.

Paul Barber in his book Vampires, Burial and Death has described that belief in vampires resulted from people of pre-industrial societies attempting to explain the natural, but to them inexplicable, process of death and decomposition.[124]

People sometimes suspected vampirism when a cadaver did not look as they thought a normal corpse should when disinterred. Rates of decomposition vary depending on temperature and soil composition, and many of the signs are little known. This has led vampire hunters to mistakenly conclude that a dead body had not decomposed at all, or, ironically, to interpret signs of decomposition as signs of continued life.[125]

Corpses swell as gases from decomposition accumulate in the torso and the increased pressure forces blood to ooze from the nose and mouth. This causes the body to look “plump,” “well-fed,” and “ruddy”changes that are all the more striking if the person was pale or thin in life. In the Arnold Paole case, an old woman’s exhumed corpse was judged by her neighbours to look more plump and healthy than she had ever looked in life.[126] The exuding blood gave the impression that the corpse had recently been engaging in vampiric activity.[38]

Darkening of the skin is also caused by decomposition.[127] The staking of a swollen, decomposing body could cause the body to bleed and force the accumulated gases to escape the body. This could produce a groan-like sound when the gases moved past the vocal cords, or a sound reminiscent of flatulence when they passed through the anus. The official reporting on the Petar Blagojevich case speaks of “other wild signs which I pass by out of high respect”.[128]

After death, the skin and gums lose fluids and contract, exposing the roots of the hair, nails, and teeth, even teeth that were concealed in the jaw. This can produce the illusion that the hair, nails, and teeth have grown. At a certain stage, the nails fall off and the skin peels away, as reported in the Blagojevich casethe dermis and nail beds emerging underneath were interpreted as “new skin” and “new nails”.[128]

It has also been hypothesized that vampire legends were influenced by individuals being buried alive because of shortcomings in the medical knowledge of the time. In some cases in which people reported sounds emanating from a specific coffin, it was later dug up and fingernail marks were discovered on the inside from the victim trying to escape. In other cases the person would hit their heads, noses or faces and it would appear that they had been “feeding.”[129] A problem with this theory is the question of how people presumably buried alive managed to stay alive for any extended period without food, water or fresh air. An alternate explanation for noise is the bubbling of escaping gases from natural decomposition of bodies.[130] Another likely cause of disordered tombs is grave robbing.[131]

Folkloric vampirism has been associated with clusters of deaths from unidentifiable or mysterious illnesses, usually within the same family or the same small community.[96] The epidemic allusion is obvious in the classical cases of Petar Blagojevich and Arnold Paole, and even more so in the case of Mercy Brown and in the vampire beliefs of New England generally, where a specific disease, tuberculosis, was associated with outbreaks of vampirism. As with the pneumonic form of bubonic plague, it was associated with breakdown of lung tissue which would cause blood to appear at the lips.[132]

In 1985 biochemist David Dolphin proposed a link between the rare blood disorder porphyria and vampire folklore. Noting that the condition is treated by intravenous haem, he suggested that the consumption of large amounts of blood may result in haem being transported somehow across the stomach wall and into the bloodstream. Thus vampires were merely sufferers of porphyria seeking to replace haem and alleviate their symptoms.[133]

The theory has been rebuffed medically as suggestions that porphyria sufferers crave the haem in human blood, or that the consumption of blood might ease the symptoms of porphyria, are based on a misunderstanding of the disease. Furthermore, Dolphin was noted to have confused fictional (bloodsucking) vampires with those of folklore, many of whom were not noted to drink blood.[134] Similarly, a parallel is made between sensitivity to sunlight by sufferers, yet this was associated with fictional and not folkloric vampires. In any case, Dolphin did not go on to publish his work more widely.[135] Despite being dismissed by experts, the link gained media attention[136] and entered popular modern folklore.[137]

Rabies has been linked with vampire folklore. Dr Juan Gmez-Alonso, a neurologist at Xeral Hospital in Vigo, Spain, examined this possibility in a report in Neurology. The susceptibility to garlic and light could be due to hypersensitivity, which is a symptom of rabies. The disease can also affect portions of the brain that could lead to disturbance of normal sleep patterns (thus becoming nocturnal) and hypersexuality. Legend once said a man was not rabid if he could look at his own reflection (an allusion to the legend that vampires have no reflection). Wolves and bats, which are often associated with vampires, can be carriers of rabies. The disease can also lead to a drive to bite others and to a bloody frothing at the mouth.[138][139]

In his 1931 treatise On the Nightmare, Welsh psychoanalyst Ernest Jones asserted that vampires are symbolic of several unconscious drives and defence mechanisms. Emotions such as love, guilt, and hate fuel the idea of the return of the dead to the grave. Desiring a reunion with loved ones, mourners may project the idea that the recently dead must in return yearn the same. From this arises the belief that folkloric vampires and revenants visit relatives, particularly their spouses, first.[140]

In cases where there was unconscious guilt associated with the relationship, however, the wish for reunion may be subverted by anxiety. This may lead to repression, which Sigmund Freud had linked with the development of morbid dread.[141] Jones surmised in this case the original wish of a (sexual) reunion may be drastically changed: desire is replaced by fear; love is replaced by sadism, and the object or loved one is replaced by an unknown entity. The sexual aspect may or may not be present.[142] Some modern critics have proposed a simpler theory: People identify with immortal vampires because, by so doing, they overcome, or at least temporarily escape from, their fear of dying.[143]

The innate sexuality of bloodsucking can be seen in its intrinsic connection with cannibalism and folkloric one with incubus-like behaviour. Many legends report various beings draining other fluids from victims, an unconscious association with semen being obvious. Finally Jones notes that when more normal aspects of sexuality are repressed, regressed forms may be expressed, in particular sadism; he felt that oral sadism is integral in vampiric behaviour.[144]

The reinvention of the vampire myth in the modern era is not without political overtones.[145] The aristocratic Count Dracula, alone in his castle apart from a few demented retainers, appearing only at night to feed on his peasantry, is symbolic of the parasitic Ancien regime. In his entry for “Vampires” in the Dictionnaire philosophique (1764), Voltaire notices how the end of the 18th century coincided with the decline of the folkloric belief in the existence of vampires but that now “there were stock-jobbers, brokers, and men of business, who sucked the blood of the people in broad daylight; but they were not dead, though corrupted. These true suckers lived not in cemeteries, but in very agreeable palaces”.[146]

Marx defined capital as “dead labour which, vampire-like, lives only by sucking living labour, and lives the more, the more labour it sucks”.[147]Werner Herzog, in his Nosferatu the Vampyre, gives this political interpretation an extra ironic twist when protagonist Jonathon Harker, a middle-class solicitor, becomes the next vampire; in this way the capitalist bourgeois becomes the next parasitic class.[148]

A number of murderers have performed seemingly vampiric rituals upon their victims. Serial killers Peter Krten and Richard Trenton Chase were both called “vampires” in the tabloids after they were discovered drinking the blood of the people they murdered. Similarly, in 1932, an unsolved murder case in Stockholm, Sweden was nicknamed the “Vampire murder”, because of the circumstances of the victim’s death.[149] The late-16th-century Hungarian countess and mass murderer Elizabeth Bthory became particularly infamous in later centuries’ works, which depicted her bathing in her victims’ blood in order to retain beauty or youth.[150]

Vampire lifestyle is a term for a contemporary subculture of people, largely within the Goth subculture, who consume the blood of others as a pastime; drawing from the rich recent history of popular culture related to cult symbolism, horror films, the fiction of Anne Rice, and the styles of Victorian England.[151] Active vampirism within the vampire subculture includes both blood-related vampirism, commonly referred to as sanguine vampirism, and psychic vampirism, or supposed feeding from pranic energy.[119][152]

Although many cultures have stories about them, vampire bats have only recently become an integral part of the traditional vampire lore. Indeed, vampire bats were only integrated into vampire folklore when they were discovered on the South American mainland in the 16th century.[153] Although there are no vampire bats in Europe, bats and owls have long been associated with the supernatural and omens, although mainly because of their nocturnal habits,[153][154] and in modern English heraldic tradition, a bat means “Awareness of the powers of darkness and chaos”.[155]

The three species of actual vampire bats are all endemic to Latin America, and there is no evidence to suggest that they had any Old World relatives within human memory. It is therefore impossible that the folkloric vampire represents a distorted presentation or memory of the vampire bat. The bats were named after the folkloric vampire rather than vice versa; the Oxford English Dictionary records their folkloric use in English from 1734 and the zoological not until 1774. Although the vampire bat’s bite is usually not harmful to a person, the bat has been known to actively feed on humans and large prey such as cattle and often leave the trademark, two-prong bite mark on its victim’s skin.[153]

The literary Dracula transforms into a bat several times in the novel, and vampire bats themselves are mentioned twice in it. The 1927 stage production of Dracula followed the novel in having Dracula turn into a bat, as did the film, where Bla Lugosi would transform into a bat.[153] The bat transformation scene would again be used by Lon Chaney Jr. in 1943’s Son of Dracula.[156]

The vampire is now a fixture in popular fiction. Such fiction began with 18th-century poetry and continued with 19th-century short stories, the first and most influential of which was John Polidori’s The Vampyre (1819), featuring the vampire Lord Ruthven.[157] Lord Ruthven’s exploits were further explored in a series of vampire plays in which he was the anti-hero. The vampire theme continued in penny dreadful serial publications such as Varney the Vampire (1847) and culminated in the pre-eminent vampire novel of all time: Dracula by Bram Stoker, published in 1897.[158]

Over time, some attributes now regarded as integral became incorporated into the vampire’s profile: fangs and vulnerability to sunlight appeared over the course of the 19th century, with Varney the Vampire and Count Dracula both bearing protruding teeth,[159] and Murnau’s Nosferatu (1922) fearing daylight.[160] The cloak appeared in stage productions of the 1920s, with a high collar introduced by playwright Hamilton Deane to help Dracula ‘vanish’ on stage.[161] Lord Ruthven and Varney were able to be healed by moonlight, although no account of this is known in traditional folklore.[162] Implied though not often explicitly documented in folklore, immortality is one attribute which features heavily in vampire film and literature. Much is made of the price of eternal life, namely the incessant need for blood of former equals.[163]

The vampire or revenant first appeared in poems such as The Vampire (1748) by Heinrich August Ossenfelder, Lenore (1773) by Gottfried August Brger, Die Braut von Corinth (The Bride of Corinth) (1797) by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Robert Southey’s Thalaba the Destroyer (1801), John Stagg’s “The Vampyre” (1810), Percy Bysshe Shelley’s “The Spectral Horseman” (1810) (“Nor a yelling vampire reeking with gore”) and “Ballad” in St. Irvyne (1811) about a reanimated corpse, Sister Rosa, Samuel Taylor Coleridge’s unfinished Christabel and Lord Byron’s The Giaour.[164]

Byron was also credited with the first prose fiction piece concerned with vampires: The Vampyre (1819). This was in reality authored by Byron’s personal physician, John Polidori, who adapted an enigmatic fragmentary tale of his illustrious patient, “Fragment of a Novel” (1819), also known as “The Burial: A Fragment”.[18][158] Byron’s own dominating personality, mediated by his lover Lady Caroline Lamb in her unflattering roman-a-clef, Glenarvon (a Gothic fantasia based on Byron’s wild life), was used as a model for Polidori’s undead protagonist Lord Ruthven. The Vampyre was highly successful and the most influential vampire work of the early 19th century.[165]

Varney the Vampire was a landmark popular mid-Victorian era gothic horror story by James Malcolm Rymer and Thomas Peckett Prest, which first appeared from 1845 to 1847 in a series of pamphlets generally referred to as penny dreadfuls because of their inexpensive price and typically gruesome contents.[157] The story was published in book form in 1847 and runs to 868 double-columned pages. It has a distinctly suspenseful style, using vivid imagery to describe the horrifying exploits of Varney.[162] Another important addition to the genre was Sheridan Le Fanu’s lesbian vampire story Carmilla (1871). Like Varney before her, the vampire Carmilla is portrayed in a somewhat sympathetic light as the compulsion of her condition is highlighted.[166]

No effort to depict vampires in popular fiction was as influential or as definitive as Bram Stoker’s Dracula (1897).[167] Its portrayal of vampirism as a disease of contagious demonic possession, with its undertones of sex, blood and death, struck a chord in Victorian Europe where tuberculosis and syphilis were common. The vampiric traits described in Stoker’s work merged with and dominated folkloric tradition, eventually evolving into the modern fictional vampire.[157]

Drawing on past works such as The Vampyre and “Carmilla”, Stoker began to research his new book in the late 19th century, reading works such as The Land Beyond the Forest (1888) by Emily Gerard and other books about Transylvania and vampires. In London, a colleague mentioned to him the story of Vlad epe, the “real-life Dracula,” and Stoker immediately incorporated this story into his book. The first chapter of the book was omitted when it was published in 1897, but it was released in 1914 as Dracula’s Guest.[168]

The latter part of the 20th century saw the rise of multi-volume vampire epics. The first of these was Gothic romance writer Marilyn Ross’ Barnabas Collins series (196671), loosely based on the contemporary American TV series Dark Shadows. It also set the trend for seeing vampires as poetic tragic heroes rather than as the more traditional embodiment of evil. This formula was followed in novelist Anne Rice’s highly popular and influential Vampire Chronicles (19762003).[169]

The 21st century brought more examples of vampire fiction, such as J.R. Ward’s Black Dagger Brotherhood series, and other highly popular vampire books which appeal to teenagers and young adults. Such vampiric paranormal romance novels and allied vampiric chick-lit and vampiric occult detective stories are a remarkably popular and ever-expanding contemporary publishing phenomenon.[170]L.A. Banks’ The Vampire Huntress Legend Series, Laurell K. Hamilton’s erotic Anita Blake: Vampire Hunter series, and Kim Harrison’s The Hollows series, portray the vampire in a variety of new perspectives, some of them unrelated to the original legends. Vampires in the Twilight series (20052008) by Stephenie Meyer ignore the effects of garlic and crosses, and are not harmed by sunlight (although it does reveal their supernatural nature).[171]Richelle Mead further deviates from traditional vampires in her Vampire Academy series (2007present), basing the novels on Romanian lore with two races of vampires, one good and one evil, as well as half-vampires.[172]

Considered one of the preeminent figures of the classic horror film, the vampire has proven to be a rich subject for the film and gaming industries. Dracula is a major character in more films than any other but Sherlock Holmes, and many early films were either based on the novel of Dracula or closely derived from it. These included the landmark 1922 German silent film Nosferatu, directed by F. W. Murnau and featuring the first film portrayal of Draculaalthough names and characters were intended to mimic Dracula’s, Murnau could not obtain permission to do so from Stoker’s widow, and had to alter many aspects of the film. In addition to this film was Universal’s Dracula (1931), starring Bla Lugosi as the Count in what was the first talking film to portray Dracula. The decade saw several more vampire films, most notably Dracula’s Daughter in 1936.[173]

The legend of the vampire was cemented in the film industry when Dracula was reincarnated for a new generation with the celebrated Hammer Horror series of films, starring Christopher Lee as the Count. The successful 1958 Dracula starring Lee was followed by seven sequels. Lee returned as Dracula in all but two of these and became well known in the role.[174] By the 1970s, vampires in films had diversified with works such as Count Yorga, Vampire (1970), an African Count in 1972’s Blacula, the BBC’s Count Dracula featuring French actor Louis Jourdan as Dracula and Frank Finlay as Abraham Van Helsing, and a Nosferatu-like vampire in 1979’s Salem’s Lot, and a remake of Nosferatu itself, titled Nosferatu the Vampyre with Klaus Kinski the same year. Several films featured female, often lesbian, vampire antagonists such as Hammer Horror’s The Vampire Lovers (1970) based on Carmilla, though the plotlines still revolved around a central evil vampire character.[174]

The pilot for the Dan Curtis 1972 television series Kolchak: The Night Stalker revolved around reporter Carl Kolchak hunting a vampire on the Las Vegas strip. Later films showed more diversity in plotline, with some focusing on the vampire-hunter, such as Blade in the Marvel Comics’ Blade films and the film Buffy the Vampire Slayer.[157]Buffy, released in 1992, foreshadowed a vampiric presence on television, with adaptation to a long-running hit TV series of the same name and its spin-off Angel. Still others showed the vampire as protagonist, such as 1983’s The Hunger, 1994’s Interview with the Vampire: The Vampire Chronicles and its indirect sequel of sorts Queen of the Damned, and the 2007 series Moonlight. Bram Stoker’s Dracula was a noteworthy 1992 film which became the then-highest grossing vampire film ever.[175]

This increase of interest in vampiric plotlines led to the vampire being depicted in films such as Underworld and Van Helsing, and the Russian Night Watch and a TV miniseries remake of ‘Salem’s Lot, both from 2004. The series Blood Ties premiered on Lifetime Television in 2007, featuring a character portrayed as Henry Fitzroy, illegitimate son of Henry VIII of England turned vampire, in modern-day Toronto, with a female former Toronto detective in the starring role. A 2008 series from HBO, entitled True Blood, gives a Southern take to the vampire theme.[171]

In 2008 the BBC Three series Being Human became popular in Britain. It featured an unconventional trio of a vampire, a werewolf and a ghost who are sharing a flat in Bristol.[176][177] Another popular vampire-related show is CW’s The Vampire Diaries. The continuing popularity of the vampire theme has been ascribed to a combination of two factors: the representation of sexuality and the perennial dread of mortality.[178] Another “vampiric” series that has come out between 2008 and 2012 is the Twilight Saga, a series of films based on the book series of the same name.[non-primary source needed]

In quite another type of depiction, Count von Count, a harmless and friendly vampire parodying Bela Lugosi’s depictions, is a major character on the children’s television series Sesame Street. He teaches counting and simple arithmetic through his compulsion to count everything, a trait he shares with certain other vampires of folklore.[non-primary source needed]

The 2005 CW series Supernatural has also depicted vampires. The main characters, Sam and Dean Winchester, along with other hunters, believe that the true way to kill a vampire is to decapitate the being.The show’s vampires are shown in a rather negative light, though some are shown mercy after being found to not harm humans.[non-primary source needed]

The role-playing game Vampire: the Masquerade has been influential upon modern vampire fiction and elements of its terminology, such as embrace and sire, appear in contemporary fiction.[157] Popular video games about vampires include Castlevania, which is an extension of the original Bram Stoker Dracula novel, and Legacy of Kain.[179] Vampires are also sporadically portrayed in other games, including The Elder Scrolls IV: Oblivion, when a character can become afflicted with porphyric haemophilia.[180] A different take on vampires is presented in Bethesda’s other game Fallout 3 with “The Family”. Members of the Family are afflicted with a manic desire to consume human flesh, but restrict themselves to drinking blood to avoid becoming complete monsters.[181]

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Entertainment – CBC News


The Accountant is implausible and yet also entertaining, says CBC’s Eli Glasner


Gord Downie opens up about battling cancer, says it’s ‘creating something’

Happy birthday Winnie: 90 facts for Pooh’s 90th year


Bob Dylan wins Nobel Prize in Literature


Oculus, Sony and others rush to bring VR to your living room

Janet Jackson confirms she’s expecting her 1st child at 50

Game Review

A new generation keeps Gears of War 4 spinning


Amazon launches streaming music service, but not in Canada


Burnaby actor’s lead role in Kim’s Convenience a rarity in mainstream TV

Italian journalist says he set out to ‘uncover a lie’ when he unmasked author Elena Ferrante

Paul McCartney, Neil Young rock Desert Trip music fest together


Yokai Watch 2: A charming alternative to the Pokemon powerhouse


Denial, starring Rachel Weisz, tackles true-life court battle of the Holocaust on trial


The Girl on the Train, The Birth of a Nation and Two Lovers and a Bear


From page to screen: Does The Girl on the Train follow in the novel’s tracks?


The Birth of a Nation: will audiences separate the film from the filmmaker?


Here, there and everywhere: Kim Kardashian and the price of social media exposure


Breaking new ground: Kim’s Convenience to be Canada’s 1st sitcom led by Asians


Fresh start for Steven Sabados, ‘sexy’ crime thriller Shoot the Messenger and more debut on CBC-TV

Italian journalist claims to reveal the true identity of Elena Ferrante

Robin Williams was fighting ‘terrorist within his brain,’ widow says in essay

‘Indian Group of Seven’ artist Daphne Odjig dead at 97


Deepwater Horizon, Queen of Katwe and more


Queen of Katwe a refreshingly positive African story

Lawren Harris mountainscape featured in Steve Martin exhibit set for auction


Contenders for the Turner Prize include a train, a brick suit and giant buttocks

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Movie Awards 2016 – MTV Movie Awards – MTV

Alright movie fanatics, like a young Kevin Hart and some cake, another Movie Awards is officially under our belt. But at least we’ve got some incredible moments to hold us over until next year, like a possible Samoan Superman vs. the Dark Chocolate Night flick in the making. For realzies though, the 2016 MTV Movie Awards would have been nothing without our very own odd-couple, Kevin Hart and Dwayne “The Rock” Johnson. From busting onto the stage on a war rig straight from Fury Road, to reminding us all where we were when Leo got down and dirty with a bear, Kevin Hart and Dwayne Johnson were two hosts for the ages.

Of course, the censor-stimulating debauchery didn’t stop there. The high wattage of A-list celebs was so bright, we almost needed shades as ‘Mad Max: Fury Road’s own Charlize Theron accepted the award for Best Female Performance, and hunky Captain America himself, Chris Evans, took to the stage to introduce an action-packed clip from his latest flick, ‘Captain America: Civil War.’ Funny man turned heartthrob/hero Chris Pratt earned the Golden Popcorn for Best Action Performance just before the exceptionally swole Zac Efron apologized to a newly jacked Seth Rogen’s not-so-bulgey bulge. Ryan Reynolds got down with a few twerking Deadpools and Salt-N-Pepa when winning the award for Best Comedic performance, while Melissa McCarthy crowdsurfed her way to the stage to become the first woman ever to win the Comedic Genius Award. And then there was Will Smith, whose outstanding body of work earned him the highly coveted Generation Award.

But between all the movie madness, we also got to see some stellar musical performances hit the Movie Awards’ stage. Halsey kicked off the night’s tunes with a haunting performance of her latest track, “Castle” from ‘The Huntsman: Winter’s War,’ and Ariana Grande brought down the house with a soulful rendition of her latest hit, “Dangerous Woman.” The Lonely Island even stopped by to pay tribute to Will Smith, performing some of his most memorable hits like, “Parents Just Don’t Understand” and “Gettin’ Jiggy Wit It.”

Yes, it was quite the night of cinematic sizzle.

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‘The Walking Dead’ clip teases Negan’s victim –

The first look at ‘The Walking Dead’ Season 7 is a bloody, tense, anxiety-inducing three-minute clip that could hint at the identity of villainous Negan’s victim and another horrific development to come.

The sneak peek, of course, did not reveal the person’s identity. Instead, it shows Negan (Jeffrey Dean Morgan) taunting a traumatized and blood-splattered Rick.

“I’m going to kill you,” Rick whispers in the video. “Not today. Not tomorrow. But I’m going to kill you.”

Negan is displeased with Rick’s tone and proceeds to ask his fellow Savior Simon for the weapon Rick was carrying — a hatchet.

“Simon is my right hand man — having one of those is important,” Negan says. “I mean, what do you have left without them?”

After a little more ridiculing, Negan drags Rick roughly to the trailer by the collar of his jacket, wielding Rick’s ax in the other hand.

“I’ll be right back — maybe Rick will be with me,” Negan says.

The crowd at Comic-Con erupted in shrieks as the clip came to a close.

Since its start, “The Walking Dead” has often taken key moments from the comic books and placed them into different points in the TV show’s timeline. In the comics, Rick loses his hand in a confrontation with The Governor, a character who appeared last in Season 4.

Many fans have taken the clip to be a hint that Rick could be losing his hand in the premiere.

The video has also sent internet detectives into a tailspin — with many claiming to have solved the mystery that has plagued fans for months.

Some say Negan’s reference to “right hand man” implied the victim is male. Others say the blood on Rick’s face indicates Negan’s victim was directly to the right of Rick. In some cases, fans are working to find reasons to eliminate their own favorite characters from the list of possibilities.

Whatever the outcome, the actors were clear about one thing: Filming the scene was not easy.

“I hated shooting all of that,” said Norman Reedus, who plays Daryl. “I was miserable.”

Lauren Cohan, who plays Maggie, said the death is “unexpected, destabilizing and jarring in a bigger way than we ever had.”

Director Greg Nicotero, meanwhile, put the focus on the aftermath.

“There’s some unbelievable moments and unbelievable performances that come out of the fog and the haze and the post traumatic stress of the actual moment that I think really set the stage for the entire season,” he said.

“The Walking Dead” premieres October 23 on AMC. A live 90-minute episode of the after show ‘The Talking Dead” airs immediately after.

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Paranormal Activity (2007) – IMDb

3 wins & 11 nominations. See more awards Learn more People who liked this also liked…


After experiencing what they think are a series of “break-ins”, a family sets up security cameras around their home, only to realize that the events unfolding before them are more sinister than they seem.

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In 1988, young sisters Katie and Kristi befriend an invisible entity who resides in their home.

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It has been five years since the disappearance of Katie and Hunter, and a suburban family witness strange events in their neighborhood when a woman and a mysterious child move in.

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When a young man becomes the target of a malevolent entity, he must uncover its true intentions before it takes complete control of him.

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Two strangers awaken in a room with no recollection of how they got there or why, and soon discover they are pawns in a deadly game perpetrated by a notorious serial killer.

Director: James Wan

Stars: Cary Elwes, Leigh Whannell, Danny Glover


A television reporter and cameraman follow emergency workers into a dark apartment building and are quickly locked inside with something terrifying.

Directors: Jaume Balaguer, Paco Plaza

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Horror | Mystery

A journalist must investigate a mysterious videotape which seems to cause the death of anyone in a week of viewing it.

Director: Gore Verbinski

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Horror | Mystery | Thriller

An American nurse living and working in Tokyo is exposed to a mysterious supernatural curse, one that locks a person in a powerful rage before claiming their life and spreading to another victim.

Director: Takashi Shimizu

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Fantasy | Horror | Mystery

A family looks to prevent evil spirits from trapping their comatose child in a realm called The Further.

Director: James Wan

Stars: Patrick Wilson, Rose Byrne, Ty Simpkins

Horror | Mystery

Washed-up true-crime writer Ellison Oswalt finds a box of super 8 home movies that suggest the murder he is currently researching is the work of a serial killer whose work dates back to the 1960s.

Director: Scott Derrickson

Stars: Ethan Hawke, Juliet Rylance, James Ransone

After a young, middle class couple moves into a suburban ‘starter’ tract house, they become increasingly disturbed by a presence that may or may not be somehow demonic but is certainly most active in the middle of the night. Especially when they sleep. Or try to. Written by Paramount Pictures

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Paranormal Activity (2007) – IMDb

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2016 Horror Movies – MovieWeb: Movie News, Movie Trailers …

In this exquisitely made and terrifying new horror film, the age-old concepts of witchcraft, black magic and possession are innovatively brought together to tell the intimate and riveting story of one family’s frightful unraveling in the New England wilderness circa 1630. New England, 1630. Upon threat of banishment by the church, an English farmer leaves his colonial plantation, relocating his wife and five children to a remote plot of land on the edge of an ominous forest – within which lurks an unknown evil. Strange and unsettling things begin to happen almost immediately – animals turn malevolent, crops fail, and one child disappears as another becomes seemingly possessed by an evil spirit. With suspicion and paranoia mounting, family members accuse teenage daughter Thomasin of witchcraft, charges she adamantly denies. As circumstances grow more treacherous, each family member’s faith, loyalty and love become tested in shocking and unforgettable ways. Writer/director Robert Eggers’ debut feature, which premiered to great acclaim at the 2015 Sundance Film Festival – winning the Best Director Prize in the U.S. Narrative Competition – painstakingly recreates a God-fearing New England decades before the 1692 Salem witch trials, in which religious convictions tragically turned to mass hysteria. Told through the eyes of the adolescent Thomasin – in a star-making turn by newcomer Anya Taylor-Joy – and supported by mesmerizing camera work and a powerful musical score, The Witch is a chilling and groundbreaking new take on the genre.

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2016 Horror Movies – MovieWeb: Movie News, Movie Trailers …

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The Walking Dead Show And Comics Wont End The Same Way …

Its unknown if The Walking Dead is deviating from the comic when it comes to who died in the Season 6 Finale.

Theinternet has guesses, but really, it could be almost anyone. Who the heck knows? Also, who cares, because the show is about to change something even bigger: The Walking Dead comic and show likely wont have the same ending.

And this is how we all feel about it:

While talking with Kevin Smith on Geeking Out, Walking Dead comic series creator Robert Kirkman, said he knows how the comic series will end, and he wouldnt let the show reveal the ending first.

If the show were ever to end ever, at any point and the comic was still going, I would have to sit down with [showrunner Scott Gimple] and pretend I have no idea how to end it, and then work with him to try and come up with a new ending.

Kirkman previously criticizedGame of Thrones author George R.R. Martin for revealing the end of his series to producers on his show, so it makes sense that Kirkman would want to keep his secret to himself.

The good news for fans is, though its likely the show will end before the comic (since its already six seasons deep), its not a given.Joel Stillerman, president of original programming and development for AMC, previously told Vulture that the show would continue as long as the comics were going strong.

The answer to how long the show will go on in some way is directly correlated with the health of the storytelling in the comics, he said. Stillerman later added, Were along for that ride.

The Walking Dead returns to AMC Oct. 23 at 9 p.m. ET.

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The Walking Dead Show And Comics Wont End The Same Way …

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The Walking Dead (season 6) – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The sixth season of The Walking Dead, an American horrordrama television series on AMC, premiered on October 11, 2015,[1] and concluded on April 3, 2016, comprising 16 episodes. Developed for television by Frank Darabont, the series is based on the eponymous series of comic books by Robert Kirkman, Tony Moore, and Charlie Adlard. The executive producers are Kirkman, David Alpert, Scott M. Gimple, Greg Nicotero, Tom Luse, and Gale Anne Hurd, with Gimple as showrunner for the third consecutive season.

The first part of the season focuses on Rick and his group leading the Alexandria community through a series of crises including the threat of a large herd of walkers and an attack by dangerous scavengers known as the Wolves. The second half involves Rick and his companions discovering more survivor communities, making allies of the agrarian Hilltop colony and adversaries of the Saviors led by the ruthless Negan. This season adapts material from issues #78100 of the comic and introduces notable comic characters such as Heath, Denise Cloyd, Dwight, Paul “Jesus” Rovia, Gregory, and Negan.

The first half of the sixth season involves the failed execution of a plan initiated by Rick’s group to parade a large mass of walkers trapped in a quarry near the walled community of Alexandria to a point twenty miles away as to remove the threat. Though the plan initially works, it is interrupted when the Wolves attack the vulnerable Alexandria, killing several of the residents and the commotion drawing part of the walkers to the community. Carol and Morgan help defend the community, but Morgan is disgusted with her callousness towards human life. Rick’s group is split up as they attempt to control the remaining herd, and soon the community is surrounded by walkers pounding on its walls.

One separated group, Daryl, Abraham, and Sasha, have their own encounters, including a meeting with the dubious Dwight who claims to be fleeing from a group called “The Saviors”. The three, after finding a fuel truck, are waylaid by several members of the Saviors who claim their property is now owned by Negan, before Daryl blows them up with a rocket-powered grenade. Elsewhere, Glenn and Nicholas are separated from Michonne and Heath while trying to create a diversion for the walkers; the latter pair make it back to Alexandria, while Nicholas commits suicide and traps Glenn while walkers surround him. He is saved by Enid, and the two start their way back.

Walkers eventually break through the weakened wall from the Wolf attack, forcing survivors into the homes. Several Alexandrians dies from this including Deanna and Jessie and her sons, while Carl loses an eye from a stray bullet. Daryl, Abraham and Sasha arrive and ignite the fuel truck to incinerate most of the walkers, while Glenn and Enid arrive in time to save Maggie, who had been trying to leave Alexandria to search for Glenn.

The second half of the season starts two months after the incident, the community re-secured but now starting to run low on supplies. Rick and Daryl meet Jesus, a resident of the nearby Hilltop community, and he takes them to meet their leader, Gregory. Gregory offers to share their supplies if Rick’s group can end the extortion that Negan and the Saviors have on them. Rick agrees, and they make several attacks on Savoir strongholds. Carol has a crisis of conscience over her violence and flees; Rick and Morgan go to find her, during which Morgan attempts to sway Rick from killing others. Morgan eventually finds Carol after she had fought off several Saviors and helps to get her to safety and treat her wounds.

The Saviors, including Dwight, respond to the attacks with small scuffles, and Rick puts Alexandria on lockdown. Maggie starts having complications with her pregnancy, and members of Rick’s group agree to help protect her to get her to the Hilltop community for help. They find the Saviors have blocked every road to Hilltop, and soon they are captured by the Saviors. Negan meets them, demanding that half of what Alexandria has is now his, and to prove his point, beats up on the head of a random, unrevealed member of Rick’s group with a baseball bat.

On October 7, 2014, AMC renewed The Walking Dead for a sixth season.[14]Scott M. Gimple revealed that the sixth season would continue to remix material from the comic and explained that there would be a flashback backstory to some of the characters:

“There are other people that we’re going to see throughout the season from the comics, and I’m excited for people to see it, but I don’t want to tell them now. I think a few minor remixes, but some direct stuff from the comic as well, as far as these characters go.

I think there’s a really cool aspect to the first half of the season that serves almost as a prequel to some direct comic stuff in the second half of the season. I think there’s a way that Robert did some of the story that we’re reaching that had a real past to it, where people are referring to some things in the past in the comic. And we’re able to portray some of that backstory in some ways that you didn’t get to see in the comic.”[15]

Filming for the season began in Senoia, Georgia, in early May 2015 and concluded on November 17, 2015.[16][17] The season contains three extended episodes, airing in expanded 90-minute time slots, the season premiere, the fourth episode and the season finale.[1][18][19]

Three new actors were cast to portray new characters in the sixth season, including Corey Hawkins as Heath, a prominent and long running comic book character who is a supply runner and loyal friend to Glenn Rhee.[15]Merritt Wever joined the cast in the role of comic book character Dr. Denise Cloyd, while Ethan Embry also joined the cast.[3] In September 2015, Xander Berkeley was announced in an unknown recurring role that would debut during the second half of the season, and Berkeley has an option for series regular for the seventh season.[20] In January 2016, Berkeley’s role was confirmed to be Gregory, a character from the comics.[8]Tom Payne joins the cast as Hilltop Colony recruiter, Paul Monroe.[7] On November 10, 2015, it was announced that Jeffrey Dean Morgan had been cast as Negan.[9]

Alanna Masterson who portrays Tara Chambler took maternity leave from the season in the episode “Not Tomorrow Yet” as she was nine months pregnant during the time of filming the episode.[21] She is absent from the final four episodes, and it is explained through her character going on a two-week supply run.[22]

Overall, the season received mixed to positive reviews. On Metacritic, the first few episodes hold a score of 79 out of 100 based on 10 reviews.[39] On Rotten Tomatoes, the first few episodes have a rating of 80% with an average score of 7.4 out of 10 based on 21 reviews, with a critical consensus of, “Six seasons in, The Walking Dead is still finding ways to top itself, despite slow patches that do little to advance the plot.”[40] Matt Fowler for IGN gave a 6.8/10 rating for the season as a whole. In summary, he said: “Walking Dead’s Season 6 had some big effective moments while also crumbling under an avalanche of fake outs & trickery.” He praised the Morgan flashback episode “Here’s Not Here”, Carol’s arc and the “string of great, violent episodes in the [second half of the season]”. His major criticisms of the season were “Glenn’s ‘death’ – and other cheap fake outs/unnecessary cliffhangers” and “Characters clumsily steered into making dumb choices”.[41]

Glenn’s fake death in the third episode “Thank You” was a major source of controversy. The Hollywood Reporter heavily criticized the decision of the writers to create the storyline. Daniel Fienberg felt apathetic about the decision and said, “I’m not sure I care about […] the way his death would impact the ensemble. If he’s dead, the loss will be felt most by Maggie, but Maggie just had her sister die a few episodes ago, so there’s no variation anymore to making Lauren Cohan wail, no matter how entirely convincingly she does it. To me, The Walking Dead has lost whatever core of human relationships it ever had, and whether Glenn lives or dies, it just feels mechanical now.” Tim Goodman expressed shock over the concept of Glenn potentially being alive saying, “I honestly don’t think showrunner Scott M. Gimple is dumb enough to fake this death somehow, not with how implausible it would be for Glenn to survive it.”[42]The Hollywood Reporter later declared that the show had “lost its credibility” when Glenn was revealed to be alive in the episode, “Heads Up”. Scott Gimple responded to the controversy surrounding this. He said, “We’ve had instances of people in a very emotional state Tyreese jumping into the middle of a large herd and fighting his way out; a man cut off his own hand and fights his way through a department store full of walkers. These things are part of the world. Glenn had the bad luck of being knocked off that dumpster by Nicholas, ending his own life but [Glenn] had the good luck of Nicholas landing on him. There’s a lot of very specific facts about it that I think a lot of people have sort of gotten wrong. But breaking it down shot for shot I think we’re past that point. I don’t think this is any sort of new instance that broke the rules of our show at all. I think it’s very much in line with everything we’ve done before. I don’t think there’s a credibility issue.”[43] Erik Kain for Forbes felt that the decision ruined Glenn’s storyline. He declared season 6 “a mixed bag” and was frustrated with the decision to hold off Glenn’s fate for 3 episodes. He said, “…the showrunners spent three more episodes essentially refusing to move the plot forward. We got one good backstory, and then two episodes where almost nothing happened to anyone we cared about. We learned that Maggie was pregnant and that’s about all.” When speaking of the confirmation of Glenn being alive, Kain felt the decision was “implausible” from the inconsistency of his fall and camera angle tricks. He also felt the decision to “[drag] it out for weeks” had “effectively [killed] off all the tension […] at the end of episode 3.”[44] Brian Moylan of The Guardian was also critical, saying: “Glenn is alive, and The Walking Dead will never be the same…. It would rather kill off a main character than pull a lame switcheroo. Until now.”[45]

While the first half of the season received heavy criticism, many of the episodes in the second half were critically acclaimed. The episode “No Way Out”, which resolved all previous cliffhangers was widely acclaimed.[46] “The Next World” received highly positive reviews for its lighter tone[47] and the romance between protagonist Rick Grimes and Michonne by fans and critics alike, notably The Guardian[48] and The A.V. Club.[49] Subsequent episodes received praise, notably the episode “Not Tomorrow Yet”. “The Same Boat” was lauded for its “strong female focus”.[50] Jeremy Egner of The New York Times commented positively on Carol’s character development. He adulated the complexity of Carol’s division between ruse and real emotion, saying “Like always, Carol did whatever necessary to survive and protect her cohorts, and did so in particularly brutal fashion […] but she seems increasingly unable to avoid reckoning with the toll. “Are you O.K.?” Daryl asked when he arrived. “No,” she responded, and that was before Rick executed the remaining Savior right in front of her. It’s going to take more than a few Hail Marys to make that image, among many others, go away.”[51]

The finale received largely mixed to negative reviews, with many criticizing the cliffhanger. It sparked backlash on social media from fans and critics alike. While Jeffrey Dean Morgan’s performance as Negan was praised, the episode was mostly criticized for its cliffhanger ending. On Rotten Tomatoes, it holds a 47% rating with an average score of 6.9 out of 10 with the critical consensus: “Despite Jeffrey Dean Morgan’s deliciously evil turn as Negan, the meandering “Last Day on Earth” and its manipulative cliffhanger ending make for a disappointing season finale.”[52] Zack Handlen of The A.V. Club gave the episode a C, the lowest grade given by the site for the show to date, and commented, “The problem is almost everything else. We’ll get to Negan and that so-idiotic-it’s-actually-kind-of-hilarious cliffhanger in a second, but before we do, let’s unpack the many ways ‘Last Day On Earth’ went wrong. Even the title is badnot on its own.”[53] Todd VanDerWerff of Vox gave the episode a negative review, calling it the worst episode of the show so far, and commenting, “The extra-long episode spent its first hour dramatizing all the excitement of your GPS insisting that you take a road you already know is closed, and the last half-hour sank some nicely spooky moments with a too-long monologue and a completely botched cliffhanger.” However, he gave a positive review on Negan’s introduction.[54]

The Walking Dead’s sixth season premiere received 14.63 million viewers in its initial broadcast on AMC in the United States. The viewership slightly declined from the previous season’s record breaking premiere, “No Sanctuary” and the fourth season premiere “30 Days Without an Accident”, but was the most watched television series of the night.[23] The season finale received a 6.9 rating in the key 18-49 demographic with 14.19 million total viewers.[38] This was a significant increase from the previous episode “East”, which received a 5.9 rating and 12.38 million total,[37] but also significantly lower than the ratings for the season 5 finale, which was watched by 15.8 million American viewers with an 1849 rating of 8.2.[55]

For the 42nd Saturn Awards, the series received seven nominations and three wins: the show won for Best Horror Television Series, Danai Gurira won for Best Supporting Actress on Television, and Chandler Riggs won for Best Performance by a Younger Actor in a Television Series. Nominations included Andrew Lincoln for Best Actor on Television, Tovah Feldshuh and Melissa McBride each for Best Supporting Actress on Television, and John Carroll Lynch for Best Guest Starring Role on Television.[56][57]

The sixth season was released on DVD and Blu-ray on August 23, 2016.[58]

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Dracula Movie Review & Film Summary (1931) | Roger Ebert

Movie lore has it that Bela Lugosi could barely speak English when he was chosen by Universal Pictures to star in “Dracula” (1931). Lon Chaney had been scheduled to play the role, a wise casting decision after his success in the silent classics “The Hunchback of Notre Dame and “The Phantom of the Opera. But he died as “Dracula was going into production, and the mysterious 49-year-old Hungarian, who starred in a 1927 Broadway production of “Dracula, was cast. Legend must exaggerate, because the Hungarian emigre Lugosi had been living and working in the United States for a decade by the time the film was made, and yet there is something about his line readings that suggests a man who comes sideways to English–perhaps because in his lonely Transylvanian castle, Dracula has had centuries to study it but few opportunities to practice it.

Certainly it is Lugosi’s performance, and the cinematography of Karl Freund, that make Tod Browning’s film such an influential Hollywood picture. The greatest of all the vampire films is F.M. Murnau’s silent “Nosferatu (1922, another title in this Great Movies series), but Murnau’s work was almost a dead end, complete and self-contained, a masterpiece that stood alone. (When Werner Herzog made his version of “Nosferatu with Klaus Kinski in 1979, he was so in awe of the original that he shot on some of the same locations.) The look of Browning’s “Dracula was inspired by Murnau’s gloomy gothic visuals, well known to the German cameraman Freund, who worked with Murnau on “The Last Laugh. It was Freund who was instrumental in creating the startling impact of the arrival at Castle Dracula, the entrance to the castle’s forbidding interior spaces, and such Nosferatu-inspired shots as the hand snaking from a coffin and rats snuffling in a crypt.

What was new about the film was sound. It was the first talking picture based on Bram Stoker’s novel, and somehow Count Dracula was more fearsome when you could hear him–not an inhuman monster, but a human one, whose painfully articulated sentences mocked the conventions of drawing room society. And here Lugosi’s accent and his stiffness in English were advantages.

Lugosi was by all accounts a strange, deliberately theatrical man, who drew attention to himself with stylized behavior. He made his foreignness an asset, and in Hollywood and New York used his sinister, self-mocking accent to advantage. After the success of “Dracula, he often appeared in public dressed formally, with a flowing cape, as if still playing the role. In later life, addicted to drugs, he was reduced to self-parody, and a glimpse of his last years can be found in “Ed Wood (1994), set during his last picture.

The vampire Dracula has been the subject of more than 30 films; something deep within the legend is suited to cinema. Perhaps it is the joining of eroticism with terror. The vampire’s attack is not specifically sexual, but in drinking the blood of his victims he is engaged in the most intimate of embraces, and no doubt there is an instinctive connection between losing your virginity (and your soul) and becoming one of the undead. Vampirism is like elegant, slow-motion rape, done politely by a creature who charms you into surrender.

The Dracula myth has been filmed so often, in so many different ways (most recently by Francis Ford Coppola in his “Bram Stoker’s Dracula, 1992), that its material has become like an opera libretto, or a play by Shakespeare: We know the story and all the beats, and are concerned mostly with the style and production. All of the serious later movie Draculas draw from Lugosi’s performance, not from the earlier work by Max Schreck, whose “Nosferatu was more inhuman and distant, a skeletal wraith. Lugosi, with his deep eyes (made eerie by Freund with pinpoint lights) and his glossy black hair, created one of the most influential of all movie performances, making a distinctive impression that influenced movie Draculas for years to come–especially Hammer Films star Christopher Lee, who played the character at least seven times.

If the film’s look and star performance were influential, so was its dialogue. Many of movie’s great lines have entered into folklore:

I never drink … wine.

For one who has not lived even a single lifetime, you are a wise man, Van Helsing.

Listen to them. Children of the night. What music they make.

The story is familiar to every moviegoer. Renfield (Dwight Frye), an English real estate agent, visits Transylvania to sell a London property to the count. He really wants to make that sale; he takes no warning from the fear of the villagers when Dracula’s name is mentioned. He survives a terrifying ride in a coach with no driver. And then he plunges into his doom. The establishing shots of the fearsome interiors of Castle Dracula owe everything to the tradition of German Expressionism. There is the sinister politeness with which Dracula greets his guest and offers him food and … wine. Then the overpowering of Renfield. The return to England on the ship with its deadly cargo of coffins (another sequence that owes much to “Nosferatu). The ghost ship that drifts into port, everyone on board apparently dead except for Renfield, who is stark staring mad.

In London the vampire feasts on the blood of strangers encountered in the night, in scenes owing something to the legend of Jack the Ripper. Then he introduces himself into high society by insinuating himself into the box at the opera occupied by Dr. Seward (Herbert Bunston). The doctor owns Carfax Abbey, which is next door to the sanitarium where the unfortunate Renfield has been imprisoned (giggling and eating spiders for their blood). He meets Seward’s daughter Mina (Helen Chandler), her fiance John Harker (David Manners) and her friend Lucy (Frances Dade). They are joined eventually by the vampire hunter Dr. Van Helsing (Edward Van Sloan), who explains vampirism in more detail than the drama probably requires.

The scenes in Carfax Abbey are an anticlimax after the Expressionist terrors of the scenes set in Transylvania and aboard the ship. They’re based on the same Broadway play in which Lugosi first played Dracula, and owe more to the tradition of drawing-room drama (and, it must be said, comedy) than to the underlying appeal of vampirism. Yet even here Browning is able to add unsettling touches, as in the way he suggests Dracula’s presence in the visits of bats and in the drifting of fog.

Tod Browning (1882-1962) is a director whose name is central to any study

of the horror genre, and yet most of his best work is overshadowed by his

collaborators. Lon Chaney, “the man of 1,000 faces, seems to be the key creative force behind Browning’s silent landmarks “The Unholy Three and “West of Zanzibar. Lugosi, Freund and the subject matter are the creative engines behind “Dracula. One Browning picture that stands alone as his personal vision is “Freaks (1932), set in a circus sideshow, and so shocking it has been banned here and there ever since.

“Dracula had no musical score when it was first released, apart from some fugitive strains of “Swan Lake. That left an opportunity. I saw a restored version of the film in September at the Telluride Film Festival, with Philip Glass joining the Kronos Quartet in performing his newly composed score. That is the version now available on tapes and discs.

Purists argue that Browning’s original decision was the best one–to enhance the horror by eerie sound effects instead of underlining it with music. But “Dracula has been pushed and pulled in so many different directions by so many different artists that Glass is only following the tradition in adding his own contribution. The Glass score is effective in the way it suggests not just moody creepiness, but the urgency and need behind Dracula’s vampirism. It evokes a blood thirst that is 500 years old.

Is the 1931 “Dracula still a terrifying film, or has it become a period piece? The “most chilling, genuinely frightening film ever made, vows the reference series Cinebooks. Perhaps that was true in 1931, but today I think the movie is interesting mostly for technical reasons–for the stylized performances, the photography, the sets. There is a moment, though, when Lugosi draws close to the sleeping Lucy, and all of the elements of the material draw together. We consider the dreadful trade-off: immortality, but as a vampire. From our point of view, Dracula is committing an unspeakable crime. From his, offering an unspeakable gift.

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Dracula Movie Review & Film Summary (1931) | Roger Ebert

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